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TPTOsnY of Hawaii Wmff 



IKE KUUNA LIMU: LEARNING ABOUT HAWAII'S LIMU 



A REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT 

OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF 

MASTER OF SCIENCE 

IN 

BOTANICAL SCIENCES (BOTANY) 

DECEMBER 2003 



By 
Kamaui Aiona 



Thesis Committee: 

Will McClatchey, Chairperson 

Isabella Aiona Abbott 

Charles Langlas 



NO KUU LEI PAKALANA NANA I KAKOO 
A PAIPAI NUI MAI IAU MA KEIA PAHANA NUI . 



ill 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

He mahalo keia mai ko"u naau mai i ka nui poe i kokua 
mai iau ma keia pahana. No ka nui loa o ko lakou aloha a 
hoomanawanui iau i paa pono ai keia hua a kakou e nanea ai. 
He hoao haahaa wale no keia pahana no ka hoopaa ana i 
kekahi ike kuuna mai kupuna mai. I kokua liilii wale no 
keia pepa i na hanauna e hiki mai ana no ka hoonaauao ia ma 
na ikena Hawaii. ka mea nui ma ka hoonaauao ia, ma ka 
hana no ka ike. I mea e paa pono ai ka ike ilina a na 
kupuna, e imi i ke kumu, o ia hoi ke kupuna, a e hahai aku 
ma ke ala maa i ka hele ia. 

Makemake wale no au e hoohanohano ae i na inoa o 
kekahi poe nana i alakai mai. kuu ohana, mai kuu mau 
kupuna a i kuu mau makua a i kuu mau hiapo a pokii, a me 
kuu wahine a me kuu keiki i aloha nui ia, ia lakou a pau 
ko"u aloha a mahalo nui palena ole. ka"u mau kumu ma ka"u 
komike, o ia hoi o Will McClatchey, Isabella Aiona Abbott, 
me Kale Langlas . lakou me kuu wahine ke kumu i holomua ai 
keia pahana a hiki loa mai i ka hua. Ke haawi aku nei au i 
ko K u mahalo i ka nui poe i komo ma keia pahana, a lilo hoi 

iv 



i mau kumu a hoaaloha no"u: Anakala Eddy Kaanana, Uncle 
Blondie Joseph Kaina, Uncle Wilfred Kala, Uncle Sam Ah 
Quin, Grandma Daisy Lind, Uncle John Lind me Aunty Tweetie 
Lind, Uncle Harry Hueu, Ipo Wong, Anakala Kawika 
Kapahulehua, Uncle Abe Manuia, Mrs. Geanette Howard, Aunty 
Ulu Garmon. . . 

A mahalo hoi i na oihana i kakoo mai iau ma ka imi 
naauao ma ke kulanui. Ina i hoolako ole mai ke Kula o 
Kamehameha, ka "Aha Punana Leo, ka Hawai v i Community 
Foundation, ka Beatrice Krauss Scholarship, a ia mea aku, 
aole paha au i puka ma ke kulanui. 

Aole au poina i kuu mau kakoo, o ia hoi na hoapili ma 
ka papahele eono a me na hoa e ae i paipai nui mai iau e 
hoopau i keia pahana. Aole au e helu i na inoa o hina hou 
kekahi kumulaau. Mahalo a nui loa ia oukou a pau loa. 

A, e huikala mai ina ua hala paha kekahi inoa iau. A 
pela no na hemahema o loko o keia pahana a~u. He kanaka 
wale no au, a hemahema ke kanaka i kekahi manawa. 



ABSTRACT 

Limu, especially the edible marine algae, play an 
important part in Hawaiian culture. Limu has nutritional, 
spiritual, and social value for Hawaiians. Over 200 
different Hawaiian names of limu have been documented. 
Positive scientific identification for most of these names, 
however, is lacking. By meeting and talking with a variety 
of limu-knowledgeable peoples, a great deal of information 
was recorded. Positive identifications as well as uses for 
some of these limu have been documented and recorded as a 
resource for future generations. The limu database, 
constructed as a part of this research, contains 
information from published sources, audio and video 
recordings, and personal interviews conducted for this 
thesis. This database should be considered a launching 
point for future research and not a completed work. It is 
expected that the work will continue as new generations 
learn more and more. 



VI 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

SIGNATURE PAGE ii 

DEDICATION iii 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS IV 

ABSTRACT vi 

TABLE OF CONTENTS vii 

PREFACE viii 

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION 1 

Goals 1 

Hypotheses 2 

CHAPTER 2 : LIMU STUDIES IN HAWAI "I 4 

What is Limu? 4 

Studies on Hawaiian Limu Names 5 

Gathering Limu 13 

Preparing Limu 16 

Cultivating Limu 20 

CHAPTER 3 : METHODS 23 

Database Compilation 23 

Interviews 25 

Herbarium Voucher Construction 29 

Equipment 30 

Limu List Construction 31 

CHAPTER 4 : RESULTS 32 

Informants 32 

Data 35 

Table 1 36 

Discussion , 49 

CHAPTER 5 : CONCLUSION 59 

References 63 

Appendix A: Limu Database 

Appendix B: List of Limu Names 

Appendix C: Personal Information Sheet 

Appendix D: List of Voucher Specimens 

Appendix E: Supplemental Information - Audio Recording References 



vii 



PREFACE 

Choosing to write a paper about limu was never 
something that I dreamt about. How I got to this point in 
my life is cumulative and not very easy to explain. 

I learned from a young age, admiring my grandparents, 
parents, and older brother that hard, outdoor work is very 
rewarding. Something about working on the land just felt 
right, like coming home. I took up Hawaiian language in 
high school and continued in college at U.H. Hilo even 
though I was aiming for a business degree. Hawaiian came 
easy to me and it, too, somehow fit. While being bored to 
death by my economics classes, a required core class 
captured my attention. Botany 153 taught by Dr. Don Hemmes 
focused an instinctual love for nature to an excitement 
about plants. I had already realized that business was not 
my bag and I would eventually go on to graduate with 
degrees in Hawaiian Studies and Natural Sciences with a 
minor in Biology. 

I entered graduate school at U.H. Manoa only because 
my wife was going to pursue her masters on CTahu. Botany 

viii 



was the obvious choice because of my passion for Hawaiian 
plants and my knack for botany as a science. The class that 
set me in the direction of learning about limu was a 
phycology class taught by Dr. Celia Smith. Though an 
excellent class about Hawaiian algae, it was what was 
lacking from that class and the general field of phycology 
that challenged me towards studying limu. I was learning 
about hundreds of species of Hawaiian algae, only a few 
dozen of which I could confidently call by a Hawaiian name 
(thanks entirely to the ethnophycological studies conducted 
by Dr. Isabella Aiona Abbott). However, I began to take 
notice, especially from Pukui's Hawaiian Dictionary, of an 
abundance of Hawaiian limu names with little to no 
description and no recorded positive identification. There 
was my task. 

I eventually migrated to the sixth floor of the St. 
John Plant Science Building to be closer to the local 
students who congregated in some lab space up there. Of 
course, Dr. Abbott was also located on the sixth floor and 
in fact, is the main reason why these students were up 

ix 



there in the first place. She, being a Hawaiian, had 
converted these students to phycology, and so I had just 
moved into "Limu Grand Central." Everything was in place, 
and it was only a matter of time before I, too, found 
myself floating in the world of ethnophycology. 

Throughout the years, whether it be planting sweet 
potato on the farm as a young boy, to conversing in 
Hawaiian as a high school teen, to participating in 
retreats in Waipi'o Valley as a young adult in college, 
there were defining times that fueled the eternal fire 
inside of me to design my future by pursuing the past, my 
heritage. It's kind of like those stories of taking 
troubled Hawaiian teens and putting them in a Hawaiian 
environment, traditional sailing or in the taro patch, and 
watching them flourish and excel. Whether it's spiritual, 
guidance from the unseen, or it's just a knack we have, 
Hawaiians are drawn to their heritage. Why am I writing a 
paper about limu? I say it's because I'm Hawaiian. 

There is a dark side to this story as well. It has to 
do with an internal struggle and is part of the reason why 



it's year 2003 and I'm still doing something I started in 
1998. It has to do with the clash that sometimes occurs 
between scientific methods and Hawaiian culture, between 
indigenous property rights and the power that comes with 
the culturally inconsistent use of this knowledge, and the 
incompatibility between some parts of western and 
traditional cultures. Above all of these issues, however, 
was my own personal culture and my fear of writing 
something that was wrong, or incomplete, or arrived at in a 
culturally inappropriate way, or just culturally 
unacceptable altogether. There were and are still times 
when I feel like I shouldn't have embarked on this process 
and that I shouldn't submit this paper as a thesis for fear 
of what the repercussions might be. I don't know what the 
value of this work will be for others, but I do know that 
it was the process from which I learned the most. Having 
said all of this, I hope the reader has gained a little 
insight into ray feelings about this paper and that it will 
be taken, like most things should be, with a grain of salt. 



XI 



CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 

Goals 

There are a few main goals for this research. The 
first is to review the literature and compile a 
comprehensive database of Hawaiian limu names from various 
sources. This database will provide a foundation of 
knowledge to which I will add new names and information. 
This database can prove a valuable resource for people 
interested in Hawaiian limu names and uses. 

The second goal of this research is to meet with and 
learn from people who have knowledge of Hawaiian limu names 
and uses. Documenting this information will add information 
to the existing base and shed new light on contradictory 
records. With sound ethnobotanical methods, limu names and 
the sources of these names can be linked to limu specimens. 1 

To understand, appreciate, and perpetuate culture it 
is essential to learn from living people, not just from 



1 The value of this research lies in the permanent documentation of 
"new" limu information, such as names, identification, and uses that 
have never been documented before. From one generation to the next 
there is a loss of information. Documenting this information before it 
is "taken to the grave" is a desperate mission that is being undertaken 
in many cultural disciplines. 



historical records. By learning about limu from these 
people, I will be able to perpetuate my culture by 
identifying, gathering, and preparing limu for my own 
family. 



Hypotheses 

1) There are still people remaining who can recognize and 

identify many Hawaiian limu. 



2 ) Categories of limu knowledge that still exist include 
(not exclusively): 

a. Hawaiian names of limu 

b. Uses of limu (edible, medicinal, ceremonial, none, 
etc. ) 

c. Collection and preparation methods 

d. Conservation practices 

e. Distributions {past and present) 

f. Myths, folklore, interesting anecdotes, etc. 



3) People from different areas will have a varying range of 
limu knowledge consistent with their home area. 



4 ) There are people who have in the past and who currently 
still cultivate limu. 



CHAPTER 2: LIMU STUDIES IN HAWAII 



What is limut 



"limu. 1. A general name for all kinds of plants 
living under water, both fresh and salt, also 
algae growing in any damp place in the air, as on 
the ground, on rocks, and on other plants; also 
mosses, liverworts, lichens. See saying, hailepo. 
Ua ulu ka limu, the seaweed (pubic hairs) are 
growing. (PPN limu.) 2. vs. Tricky, deceiving, 
unstable {said to be named for the octopus' 
ability to change its color, and its waving of a 
tentacle to and fro like the motion of a seaweed 
in water). 3. n. Wind gust. Hare, 4. n. Coil, 
curl. Fare. 5. n. Soft coral" (Pukui & Elbert 
1986) . 



The term limu is considered the general name for 
aquatic to semi-aquatic life forms with a similar shape or 
form. For distinct limu with utilitarian properties, 
another specific name is applied in order to better 
distinguish between the vast amount of life forms that fall 
under the heading of "limu." This second name is usually a 
descriptive adjective (i.e., limu wawae^iole or "rats foot" 
limu) or sometimes a suffix to the contracted form of limu 
which is "11-" (i.e., llpepeiao, limu pepeiao, or "ear" 
limu) (Pukui & Elbert 1986, Reed 1907). This system, for 



the most part, is not different from the modern scientific 
system of binomial nomenclature which uses a generic name 
and a specific epithet {Doty 1957). As expected, this is 
not an uncommon system for cultures to classify and name 
their plants (Berlin 1992). When explaining to children 
this common and natural process of naming plants, I like to 
compare it to giving our children two names, a last name 
that perpetuates the relationship to the family and a 
unique name that sets the child apart. Except for the 
occasional "junior" this is usually a well-received 
analogy. 



Studies of Hawaiian limu names 

In comparison to the numerous scientific studies done 
on Hawaiian marine algae (see Abbott 1999), there are 
relatively few that have concentrated on the Hawaiian names 
and/or ethnobotanical uses for these limu. These studies 
are reviewed below in chronological order of publication. 

Charles Gaudichaud (1826) was the first to publish 
information on Hawaiian algae. During his visit to the 



islands he recorded the words rimou (limu), pacaya, ouri, 
and rimou-kala with Latin names for the last three. 2 
Interestingly, his spelling of the words reflects an older 
version of the Hawaiian language that he encountered (where 
a "Hawaiian 'r'" is used in the place of a more 
contemporary ( 1 ' ) . 

Lorrin Andrews' dictionary (1974) which was first 
published in 1865 provides a list of Hawaiian limu names 
under the term limu. This list is made up of 2 6 names 
without any descriptions. 3 Included within the definition of 
limu is the interesting statement that Hawaiians "class the 
limu among fish." 4 



2 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Gaudichaud 

3 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Andrews 

4 Definition of limu can be found in the Appendix under the heading LIMU 
NAME: limu and SOURCE: Andrews. This statement is corroborated by the 
following riddle: "Ku"u wahi i"a ~a~ole ana na^au, a he keu na"e kona 
ola, a "ono ke ^ai \ia, a makemake nui *ia e na ali "i a me nS 
maka"ainana. Ka limu." "My little fish without entrails, but alive, is 
very good to eat, and is greatly desired by chiefs and common people. 
The seaweed." (Judd 1930). The phrase " K ai me ka i"a" is the Hawaiian 
analogy of the English phrase "meat and potatoes." K Ai which refers to 
poi or kalo (Colocasia esculenta) and i ~a which literally means fish 
but refers to just about anything that is eaten with the poi or kalo. 
Using this general theme, many food products may also be classified 
with i~a. 



J. E. Chamberlain published a paper in 1881 which gave 
a list of 64 Hawaiian names. 5 This list was taken from 
Andrews' dictionary and "other sources" which are not 
named. These names, as the ones provided by Andrews, do not 
include descriptions or Latin names . 

Josephine Tilden (1905) published a paper about her 
adventures collecting algae in Hawai v i. Within this paper 
she mentions two Hawaiian names, aalaula and kala along 
with Latin names for both. 6 

Dr. William Setchell of the University of California 
published a paper entitled "Limu" in 1905. This account is 
based on his visits to several areas in the islands and 
informal interviews with several Hawaiian informants . He 
compiled an annotated list of 106 Hawaiian limu names. 7 
Included within this list of limu are some descriptive 
information, meanings of names, notes on usage, and the 
sources who provided him the information. This publication 



5 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Chamberlain, 

6 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Tilden. 

7 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Setchell. 



includes Latin names for certain limu, though no voucher 
specimens are cited. 

Minnie Reed, a teacher at the Kamehameha Schools, 
published her three year study of limu in 1907. She mainly 
collected her information through friends, students, and 
informal interviews with people at markets and beaches. 
Through these acquaintances she was able to accumulate 
specimens of many different types of edible limu with their 
Hawaiian names. Scientific determinations of the specimens 
were made by herself and by Dr. Setchell. In all, she 
identified a total of 70 species of algae under the 
category of edible limu. % She recognized that "not more than 
forty are in general use" and "the other thirty or thirty- 
five are used only by a few people in certain small areas 
where they are found in limited quantities." These numbers 
are probably conservative given Reed's statement that 
"almost every kind of seaweed that could possibly be eaten 
was used for food by some Hawaiians. "(Reed 1907) Abbott 



Although referred here as 70 distinct species, subsequent taxonomic 
work has renamed and reclassified many of these taxa. These 70 names 
are listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Reed. 



(1992) agrees that Hawaiians, out of all Pacific islanders, 
ate the most diverse range of limu species. 

Dr. Vaughan MacCaughey of the College of Hawai"i 
compiled two annotated lists of Hawaiian algae in 1918. 
While these lists of Hawaiian genera did not specifically 
aim to record ethnobotanical data, Hawaiian names and some 
information were provided for 33 economically valued limu. 9 
He recognized this exclusion of ethnobotanical data and did 
not intend for his list to be complete in any regard. 

D. M. Kaaiakamanu and J. K. Akina were two employees 
of the Board of Health who compiled information on the 
Hawaiian medicinal values of plants. First published in 
1922, this collection includes 20 limu entries, 10 of which 
are seaweeds, and the remaining 10 are either freshwater 
algae, mosses, liverworts, or lichens. 10 

Marie Neal (1930) produced a study on Hawaiian marine 
algae that did not focus on Hawaiian names or 



9 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: MacCaughey. 

10 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Kaaiakamanu, 



ethnobotanical uses. However , she did report 20 Hawaiian 
names with corresponding Latin names . n 

In 1940, Dr. E. S. Handy published the first volume of 
The Hawaiian Planter. This book, though it focused on 
Hawaiian terrestrial horticulture and ethnobotany, did 
include a ceremonial use and a riddle for limu kala. 12 

Dr. Isabella Abbott published a study on brackish- 
water algae in 1947. Within this study, she reports the 
Hawaiian names of five limu along with the Latin generic 
names . u 

Harvey Miller produced a document that remains 
unpublished but can be found at the Bernice Pauahi Bishop 
Museum (1951). His study is basically a literature review 
that compiles Hawaiian limu names and corresponding Latin 
names when available. This compilation drew from 12 
published resources and has been a great help to me in my 
efforts of continuing this type of research. 



11 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Neal. 

12 This ceremonial use and riddle is included in Appendix A under 
SOURCE: Handy. 

13 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Abbott 1947. 



10 



Not long after Miller, Dr. Maxwell Doty put out his 
own compilation of Hawaiian limu names with Latin 
counterparts (1957). 14 He stated that many of the 
scientific names cited had changed, even at that time. His 
compilation drew from nine published resources, all of 
which are included in Miller's study. 

in 1974, Dr. Isabella Abbott published an 
ethnobotanical study of limu (revised in 1996). Abbott 
reviewed the lists prepared by Reed and Doty, and found 
that perhaps 63 are indeed algae and thought to be edible. 
Of these 63, she narrowed the number of edible limu which 
can be determined consistently by the Hawaiian and Latin 
name to 29. Her study concentrated on 14 of the most common 
edible limu during that time. 15 Abbott (1996) reported 
different categories of limu that are based on the 
experiences of her mother's and those of other informants. 
The categories are distinguised as follows: 1) limu with a 
common name that are known and can be identified, 2) limu 
without a common name that are edible {the name is lost 



14 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Doty. 

15 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Abbott. 



U 



perhaps), and 3) limu without a common name and not edible, 
or "opala (rubbish). 

From the Henriques-Peabody (date unknown) collection 
housed at the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, comes an 
unpublished document titled "Names of Hawaiian birds, shore 
fauna, and seaweeds." This list contains 44 Hawaiian limu 
names with no other information. 

Lastly, a somewhat enigmatic resource exists as an old 
cardboard box that contains over a hundred 8X5 index cards, 
on which are hand-recorded Hawaiian limu names, sources of 
information, and some other information. They do not 
reference any Latin names. These cards are the compilation 
of Dr. Elizabeth Woust Brown a former professor at the 
College of Education, University of Hawai'i at Manoa. They 
now rest on the corner of Dr. Abbott's desk at the 
University of Hawai'i at Manoa. 



12 



Gathering limu 16 

It is generally recognized that in Hawai^i, older 
women are the knowledgeable bunch when it comes to limu 
matters (Chamberlain 1881, Setchell 1905). This is true 
because limu gathering is generally done by women who wade 
out into the water when the tide is low {Reed 1907, 
Setchell 1905) . 

Limu gathering is done in various ways depending on 
the type of limu and where and how it grows. 17 Limu 
gathering was generally done by women and children, except 
when extra help was needed to reach the limu in rougher, 
deep waters (Reed 1907). They could often be found wading 
out on the reef flats in the low tide, gathering the 
desired limu (Abbott 1992, Reed 1907). While gathering 
limu, bits of undesirable limu were separated and discarded 
along with any adhering bits of grit or sand (Reed 1907). 
The remaining desired limu were put into sacks, pails, or 



16 Information presented here reflects the observations and experiences 
of those who published papers. It is also important to remember that 
information reflects slices of time in which they worked and not 
necessarily the pre-contact era. 

17 Abbott (1996) provides brief descriptions of collecting methods for 
14 commonly eaten species of limu. 

13 



any other kind of suitable receptacle (Reed 1907). Some 
limu detaches from the substrate 18 and is easily collected 
when floating in the water or cast ashore in the drift 
(Abbott 1996, MacCaughey 1916, Reed 1907). 

In the instance where a boat was needed, a group of 
women and men would go out and the women would collect 
while the men would fish. 

Certain limu that remain attached to the substrate 
require a more active form of gathering, which brings up an 
interesting question. That is, which is (are) the proper 
method(s) of collecting attached limu? Reed (1907) reports 
that sharpened iron scraps or old knives were used to 
"scrape the seaweed from the coral or rocks." This would be 
especially true for limu uaualoli, limu kohu, limu aalsula, 



18 In my experiences, certain localities tend to have a specific set of 
limu that are stirred up by the oceans actions and are washed ashore in 
the drift. While it is obvious that this phenomenon is dependent on the 
types of limu that grow in each locality, there are other factors that 
are involved. Por example, at two different beaches that both have limu 
kohu, I have seen it in the drift at one of the beaches but never in 
the drift at the other. I believe that local currents, wave action, and 
underwater topography are a few reasons why drift content can vary so 
much between localities that have the same limu. This makes it hard to 
group limu into general categories of drift-collected limu and attached 
limu. In order for this to be done properly, it must be done on a 
location by location basis. 



14 



limu lipoa, limu luau, limu akiaki, and limu lipeepee, 
whose holdfasts are especially strong (Reed 1907). 19 
Abbott's (1996) report concurs that limu lu"au (Porphyra 
vietnamensis Tanaka et Pham, Reed - limu luau) does require 
scraping from the rock substrate , but differs when it comes 
to the collection of limu kohu {Asparagopsis taxiformis 
(Delile) Trevisan). Abbott reported that "'seed' is left by 
Hawaiians by never taking the creeping portions." In an 
interview conducted by Mary Kawena Pukui with a few women 
(Winifred Sanborn, Alice Aki, and others) about the limu 
pakeleawa"a {Grateloupia filicina (Lamouroux) C. Agardh) , 
they emphatically stated that one should not uproot limu 
during gathering as it is considered " hana "ino" or careless 
mistreatment (Pukui 1960). It is unclear if this attitude 
was reflecting the specific collections of limu pakeleawa^a 
or general limu gathering practice. 

From the same interview, it was also brought forth 
that during her menstrual period, it was forbidden for the 



19 The spelling of these limu are as found in Reed's treatise. 
Scientific names were not included due to the numerous taxonomic 
changes that have since occurred. Appendix A provides taxonomic and 
additional information extracted from each source. 



15 



woman to enter the ocean, thus restricting her from 
gathering limu ("pe^a ka wahine. . . haumia. . . "a "oie komo i 
ke kai ") . 



Preparing limu 

As expected, preparation varies greatly from one limu 
to the next. Adding to this variation are the preferences 
of people from different areas. Despite this variation, the 
literature reports a fairly uniform method for cleaning and 
preparing limu. 

After the collection of limu, thoroughly washing off 
the sand, grit and bits of coral becomes the priority. The 
first washing is usually done at the beach in salt water 
(Abbott 1992). Having watched Hawaiians clean limu, I feel 
the need to comment on the meticulous nature in which this 
process is executed. Not a tiny grain of sand or the 
smallest fragment of undesirable limu escapes segregation. 



16 



Reed (1907) agrees that washing the limu immediately after 
collection is done very carefully. 20 

The second washing is usually done at home in fresh 
water (Abbott 1992). Reed (1907), however, reports that 
certain limu do not fare well with fresh water cleaning, 
which would result in "injuring the flavor," and "very 
rapid decay." These limu include limu oolu, limu lipeepee, 
limu lepeahina, limu moopuna-ka-lipoa and possibly some 
others. One of Setchells (1905) informants also categorizes 
limu into those that can be stored for extended periods of 
time (one year or longer) and others that are considered 
"one day limu. " The latter limu must be eaten the day they 
are gathered. 

Once clean, the limu is drained and then chopped (i.e. 
limu manauea - Gracilaria coronopi folia J. Agardh, limu 
huluhuluwaena - same as limu pakeleawa^a) , pounded (i.e. 
limu wawae^iole - Codium spp., limu llpoa - Dictyopteris 



20 It has been my experience that the character of many older Hawaiians 
is one that supports meticulous actions. Hana kapulu (messy, careless 
work) is especially looked down upon. To do things right the first time 
so that you won't have to do it again is the norm. Therefore, I don't 
find it surprising to see this attitude extending to this practice. 



17 



spp.), or soaked overnight (i.e. limu kohu, limu "ele^ele - 
Enteromorpha spp. ) depending on the type of limu (Abbott 
1996). In addition to breaking the limu into smaller, 
easily eaten bits, chopping and pounding helps to "release 
the "a^ala (fragrance)" (Abbott 1992). Reed (1907) reports 
that the limu is treated in some combination of breaking, 
pounding, and chopping. 

Light salting is the next step for limu that will be 
consumed in the short term (~1 teaspoon salt/1 cup limu) 
(Abbott 1992). For certain limu that is stored for long 
periods of time, like llpoa and limu kohu, heavier salting 
is applied (-1/2 cup salt/1 cup limu) (Abbott 1992). As 
seasonally available species, llpoa and limu kohu are 
preserved in this manner for periods of shortage {even 6 
months) (Abbott 1992 ) 21 . In an interview by Larry Kimura of 
Elizabeth Ewaliko (1974) from Wai'alae, CTahu, Mrs. Ewaliko 



21 "Salting" includes " lomi" or rubbing in the salt (Abbott — personal 
commun ic at ion ) 



18 



emphasizes salting as an extremely important step (" kopi a 
miko\") . 22 

Like other foods, different types of limu are prepared 
and eaten in many different ways by different peoples. Reed 
{1907) and Abbott (1996) provide many ways of preparing 
limu, and so I will not delve too deeply into the subject. 

Limu fits into the main triad of the Hawaiian diet 
along with fish and poi, and so it is not surprising that 
the most popular Hawaiian way of eating limu is raw, with 
fish and poi (Abbott 1996). While modern preparations 
include cooking and boiling with other ingredients, only 
one clearly traditional cooking method was recorded: limu 
"aki"aki [Ahnfeltiopsis concinna (J. Agardh) Silva et 
DeCew] was cooked in the imu, or underground oven (Abbott 
1992). Reed (1907) reports the use of limu in laulau which 
is cooked in an imu. In this case, the limu substitutes for 
the kalo leaves {Colocasia esculenta (L. ) Schott) which 
surrounds a few pieces of meat and the whole bundle is 



22 When talking about limu wawae *±ole, she talks of preserving it in 
ocean water or water with salt added. Using fresh water would result in 
its turning soft and undesirable. 

19 



wrapped in tl leaves (Cordyline fruticosa (L. ) Goeppert). 
It is unclear if this practice is of pre-contact origin 
(traditional), though it is certainly possible. 23 

Certain combinations of limu {limu wawae~iole and limu 
llpe"epe"e [Laurencia spp.], limu manauea and limu 
mane^one^o [Laurencia nidifica J. Agardh]) are preferred by 
some people, while others (limu kohu, limu ^ele^ele) are 
generally not "tainted" by mixing with others (Abbott 
1996). 



Cultivating limu 

Some information about the traditional cultivation of 
limu is available. Loko i~a, or fish ponds, were built in 
various designs with varying amounts of fresh water 
intrusion to provide a range of habitats for both fish and 
limu, Limu ^ele^ele, limu manauea, and limu huluhuluwaena 
are examples of limu that can still be found growing in 
various loko i^a around the islands (Abbott 1992). 



23 Dr. Abbott comments, and I would agree, that if cooked laulau style 
and steamed for several hours the limu would completely disappear or 
gelatinize (Abbott — personal communication) . 

20 



Limu was transplanted from one location to another, as 
is documented in the famous example of limu huluhuluwaena 
which was brought to Waikikl for Queen Lili'uokalani from 
either Honokowai, Maui or Moloka'i (Abbott 1996). Living 
limu was brought on rocks, and according to a Pukui 
interview (I960), little stones with the limu covering it 
were ideal for transplanting purposes. Reed (1907) reports 
the transplanting of this same limu from Hawai^i to a loko 
i~a on Moloka"i by an old chief, and from Hawai'i to 
Kane'ohe Bay by yet another chief. She speculates that this 
may have been a common practice of the chiefs of old when 
they moved from one island to the next, much like their 
"best taro and yam plants" that often made the trip. 

Yet another example of cultivation comes from the 
island of Kaua^i in a bay called Moloa'a, where limu 
gatherers actively weed out undesirable limu so that the 
limu kohu can proliferate (Reed 1907). This could be a pre- 
contact "farming" practice that ensured the abundance of 
limu kohu for all living in that ahupua"a. Alternatively, 
this practice could be of recent origin, which would help 

21 



bolster yield to meet the large demand for limu kohu at the 
CT ahu markets . 

Other small scale cultivation practices also exist. 
There is a group of people at "Ewa, Calm, led by Mr. 
Walter Kamana, who are "re-seeding" the once luxuriant beds 
at One'ula Beach Park with different edible limu collected 
from Maui. The method I observed them using was to haku, or 
braid, limu with raffia into a circular lei approximately 
18 cm (9 inches) in diameter. Regrettably, I was not able 
to witness the method of "planting" these lei or the 
success of establishment. 






CHAPTER 3: METHODS 

While searching for documented ethnobotanical methods 
to emulate in my research, it soon became clear that 
certain methods were uncomfortable for me or did not apply 
to the type of research that I was interested in. A few of 
these include the use of field forms with standard 
questionnaires (Given and Harris 1994), structured 
interviews (Alexiades 1996), and all types of quantitative 
methods. Finding the appropriate methods to suit my style 
became a melding of methods from different sources. Given 
and Harris (1994) put it best by explaining that "although 
there are some general basic principles (in ethnobotany) , 
its detailed methodology must reflect the kind of flora of 
a region, and level and type of culture of the people 
living in that region." 



Database Compilation 

The database compilation was the first goal of this 
research project. In order to fulfill this goal a 
literature search was conducted at the Hamilton Library at 

23 



the University of Hawai'i at Manoa and at the Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. In addition to the literature 
search, I listened to audio recordings of interviews with 
manaleo (native speakers of Hawaiian). 24 Some of these 
interviews were conducted by Larry Kimura on a radio show 
that aired in the 1970s called Ka Leo Hawai^i. These 
recordings are housed at the Moore audio lab at u.H. Manoa. 
The other interviews were conducted by Mary Kawena Pukui 
between the 1950s and 197 0s. These recordings are housed at 
the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. Both sources 
interviewed manaleo to cover a range of topics including 
personal histories, experiences, information relevant to 
Hawaiian culture, opinions, etc. 

Information gleaned from these sources was then 
organized into an alphabetically arranged relational 
database using Microsoft Excel®. Information was organized 
under the following headings: Limu name (Hawaiian), Source, 



24 I was not able to listen to all of the audio recordings that 
referenced limu due to time and policy restrictions of both 
institutions . Appendix E gives reference information for all audio 
recordings {from Ka Leo Hawai'i and Mary Kawena Pukui interviews) that 
include a reference to limu. 



24 



Page Number, Information, Synonyms, See Also, Shared Names, 
and Latin Names. In addition to the literary and audio 
sources , new information obtained through my own interviews 
was also included in the database. 



Interviews 

Conducting interviews with limu-knowledgeable people 
was the second goal of my research. The methods used for 
finding sources , discussing limu, and recording information 
were rather basic. The keys to being successful in meeting 
people and encouraging their participation in my study were 
honesty, familiarity with cultural norms, and respect. 25 
Being part of the culture and having a genuine interest and 
desire to learn from my own culture was my biggest asset. 

Finding people who have knowledge of limu started with 
talking to family and friends. I compiled a list of 
possible limu- knowledgeable people and, depending on how 



25 I was forewarned by "Anakala Eddie Kaanana, a kupuna (elder) that I 
love dearly and respect immensely, that it is very important to carry 
yourself properly and to approach and treat kupuna the right way. He 
said the wrong etiquette will lead to them "giving you the run around, 
that's for sure!" I can attest to this because I have heard numerous 
stories of this happening and have seen it happen to people, too. 



25 



familiar I was with each person, I either contacted the 
person myself by phone or had the linking person contact 
him/her for me first. If needed, I would introduce myself, 
and then explain my interest in limu, the purpose of my 
research, and the culminating product of the research being 
a Master's thesis paper. If the person was comfortable in 
teaching me what he/she knew about limu I would set up a 
meeting. 

In explaining my research, I discussed the gap between 
the abundance of limu names on record, and the dearth of 
identifications . I shared my desire to learn the names of 
the different kinds of limu and how to use them. 

Upon meeting an informant, I would bring some kind of 
token of my appreciation. 26 Sometimes this was a little food 
(i.e. poke, poi, jam, or bread, something small), or a book 
(Limu by Dr. Abbott), or the list of Hawaiian limu names 
that I was compiling (Appendix B), or some combination of 
the above items. I again explained my purposes for studying 



26 A "olelo no~eau, or Hawaiian proverb, explains this custom (Pukui 
1983). "I hele i kauhale, pa'a pu"olo i ka lima. In going to the house 
of others, carry a package in the hand. Take a gift." 



26 



limu and emphasized that before finalizing my report I 
would let each informant review their own contributed 
information to make sure that the information was accurate. 
Final consent from each informant was requested after all 
editing revisions and/or omissions were made. 

The interview process varied from one informant to the 
next. If possible, meetings were arranged to be at the 
site(s) where the informant regularly goes to pick limu. As 
a participating observer (Alexiades 1996) , I would simply 
follow the lead of the informant as they would show me 
where the different limu grew, the names of the limu, how 
to pick the limu, etc. If I found other interesting limu I 
would inquire about these limu for names and uses. After 
picking limu, we would go to a spot where we could clean 
the limu and I would test my memory by reciting the names 
and uses for each. This was good practice for me and it 
verified the information and sometimes sparked additional 
information from my informant. I then explained the method 
of preparing herbarium vouchers for the purpose of 
attaching information to an actual limu specimen. Once I 

27 



felt that I had taken up enough of the informants' time, I 
made sure that I had all the information needed to fill out 
the Personal Information Sheet {Appendix C) for that 
informant. 27 The information sheet provided me with some 
background information for each informant and the source(s) 
of their information. 

If picking limu couldn't be arranged, I would set up a 
meeting to "talk story", or to conduct an unstructured 
interview (Alexiades 1996) where the conversation is casual 
and unstructured, but purposeful, if I felt comfortable 
asking, I requested to record the conversation for 
accuracy. 28 Usually after explaining my interest and 
purposes for studying limu, the informant would naturally 
discuss the different types of limu that he/she is 
accustomed to using. I occasionally asked questions about 
the appearance of certain limu or where it can be found 



27 Personal information usually surfaced naturally when "talking story." 
23 Through the course of my research, I found that asking to record the 
interviews was more of a personal obstacle than something that my 
informants felt uncomfortable with. It made me feel like my work was 
suspicious and not genuine. However, Dr. Abbott informs me that the 
older people that she and Mrs. Williamson interviewed in the 1970s were 
distracted by a recording machine, so they gave it up (Abbott — 
personal communication) 



28 



growing if this information wasn't covered. If the 
opportunity arose, I arranged an additional meeting so that 
I could bring some limu that I was curious about (including 
limu that I thought he/she discussed) in order to make 
identifications and herbarium vouchers ("Plant Interview" — 
Alexiades 1996). 



Herbarium Voucher Construction 

Herbarium vouchers were prepared by allowing the limu 
to dry on standard 11.5" x 17" herbarium paper using a 
method taught to me by Dr. Celia Smith of the University of 
Hawai"i Botany Department. In order to press and dry the 
limu specimens, "voucher sandwiches" were made with these 
items arranged in the following order: corrugated cardboard 
(12" x 18"), newspaper {4 -8 ply), herbarium paper, limu, 
wax paper, newspaper (4-8 ply), cardboard, (repeat 
sandwich). Heavy weights were placed on top and the whole 
press was allowed to dry for a week to two weeks. The press 
was checked daily to replace wet newspaper and to remove 
herbarium vouchers which were already dry. If the limu did 

29 



not stick naturally to the paper , glue was used. Herbarium 
voucher labels were prepared and attached to the voucher 
with the following information provided: Hawaiian limu name 
with source and likely place of name origin (depending on 
where the informant learned of the limu name), Latin name 
with authority, site (description, habitat, substrate, 
location), collectors ) , date, determiner (of Latin name), 
and collection number. A list of the herbarium vouchers is 
included under Appendix D. The herbarium vouchers were 
submitted to the National Tropical Botanical Garden 
herbarium for preservation. 



Equipment 

Equipment used during research included a Sony digital 
recorder (IC Recorder ICD-MSl), Sony digital camera 
(CyberShot DSC-Pl) with underwater housing, and 35 mm film 
camera (Canon Rebel 2000). 



30 



Limu List Construction 

A "List of Limu Names" {Appendix B) was constructed in 
order to have a list of Hawaiian names that could be given 
to informants. This list was extracted from the database. 
New names were added to the list as they were encountered 
in interviews. Many of these entries are duplicated names 
with slight variations in spelling or entirely different 
regional names applied to the same limu. Because some 
sources used the Hawaiian ~okina (glottal stop) and kahakd 
(macron) and others didn't, both were left out. The total 
amount of names included in this list should not be 
mistaken for the total amount of limu named by Hawaiians. 



31 



CHAPTER 4: RESULTS 



Informants 



Informants interviewed are given below together with 
background information, and lists of limu discussed for 
each informant interviewed. 

Sam Ah Quin lives in La~ie, cTahu. He learned most of 
his limu information from the late Helen Hoopii Kenolio 
from Kihei, Maui. The Hawaiian limu names that he discussed 
were huluhuluwaena, manauea, wawae"iole, llpe^epe"e, 
"ele"ele, kohu, lipoa, mane^one"o, owakawaka, kala, and 
^opihi . 

Carol Anamizu lives in Kahuku, O'ahu but she was born 
and raised on Moloka'i. She learned most of her limu 
information from Moloka'i. Mrs. Anamizu, Joy Anamizu 
(daughter), and I picked limu manauea together at Kahuku 
Point . 

Ulu Garmon lives in Keaukaha, Hawai'i. She was also 
born and raised there. She is one of the daughters of the 



32 



late Edith Kanaka" ole. 29 The Hawaiian limu names that she 
discussed were "aki^aki, alani, huna, ~ele"ele, 
huluhuluwaena , hulu"Ilio, limu kala, puha, pahe"e, kahili, 
palahalaha, manauea, wawae^iole, and llpoa. 

Jeanette Kaualani Akiu Howard lives in Punalu'u, 
Hawai'i. She was born right at Punalu"u beach and still 
lives a block away from where she was born (1923). She also 
runs a lei and memorabilia stand at the beach. She learned 
about limu from her grandmother. She and I picked and 
discussed limu huluhuluwaena, ko"ele"ele, limu "ele"ele, 
llpe^epe^e, ^aki^aki, limu kohu, limu kala and palahalaha. 

Joseph "Blondie" Kaina lives in Hana, Maui. Born 
{1943) and raised there, Uncle Blondie is one of the town's 
most renowned fishermen. He is part of the " akule hui" , a 
group of fishermen that surround akule (big-eyed scad fish) 
and divide it out to any persons who come to help open fish 
out of the nets . We met and discussed limu in the hale 



29 Aunty Edith is one of the most highly revered 

expert /practitioner/educator of Hawaiian culture. She was a master 
chanter, kumu hula {hula instructor), and haku mele (song composer). 
Perhaps her most famous composition, "Ka Uluwehi o ke Kai" , talks about 
the delicious limu of the ocean — llpoa, limu kohu, pahe^e, llpalu. 



33 



kilo, a thatched house, that was built on Ka^uiki Hill 
overlooking Hana Bay. The " akule hui" built this hale at 
this lookout spot, where they go daily to observe the akule 
schools. Meetings with Uncle Blondie often turned into 
discussions between many different fishermen including 
Wilfred Kala, John Kiambao, Masu Hashimoto, Milton Diego, 
and others. The limu names discussed at the akule hui were 
nei, pe"epe"e, limu pehu, nanui, limu make, limu kala, 
llpoa, limu kohu, wawae" iole, huluhuluwaena , limu "ele^ele, 
limu lauoho, iliau, enenue limu, and turtle limu. 

Kawika Kapahulehua lives on CTahu, but was born in 
Hilo and raised on Ni'ihau. His mother was the source of 
his limu information. "Anakala Kawika is a native speaker 
of Hawaiian language and he is part of the University of 
Hawai'i at Manoa's MSnaleo program. This program brings in 
Hawaiian language native speakers to help students learning 
Hawaiian language. Anyone can visit and talk story with 
these native speakers to improve their Hawaiian. He 
discussed two types of limu, limu ~ula and limu kanaloa. 



34 



John Lind is the son of Daisy Lind, a well known 
kupuna in Hana, both of whom live in Kipahulu. Uncle John 
told me about how he replants limu kohu "roots" that he 
accidentally brings home when he picks limu. His method is 
to stuff the holdfasts into small holes in the reef. 

Ipo Wong is from Ni'ihau and is also a native speaker 
of Hawaiian involved with the Manaleo program at U.H. at 
Manoa. She discussed limu kohu and llpoa on Ni'ihau. 



Data 

Data collected from the literature, audio records, 
video records, and interviews are organized in the Limu 
Database {Appendix A) . The information gleaned from audio 
and video records as well as interviews has been extracted 
from the Limu Database and is presented in the same table 
format within this results section (Table 1). 



35 



Table 1 
Audio/ Video/ Interview Data 



0\ 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER # & 
LATIN NAME 


Vala'ula 


Kauahipaula 


Video: 
AM 


Palahalaha. Nui ka ulu 'ana, fcohu 'upT. 






'aki'aki 


Haanio 


Audio 


Ka 'ai kela a ka honu. ' A'ole 'ai 'ia ma mua. Lohe 'o ia 'ai ka Pilipino. Kupa a 
mo'aapalupalu. 'A'olekelahe 'ainakaHawai'i. 






'aki'aki 


Howard 


Interview 


She doesn't eat this limu but it grows all over the rocks in Puna. 




KA067LIMU 
Aknfeitiopsis 
concinna (J. 
Agardh) Silva et 
DeCew 


"aki'aki, limu 


Gannon 


Interview 


Used in cursing. 






aiani, limu 


Garmon 


Interview 


One type is edible and the other is poisonous (and used for stunning fish). Both 
resemble Hpoa but are softer. 






'ele'ele 


Ah Quia 


Interview 


Mullet eat the young "ele'ele. Awa kalamoho eat the long limu. Laniakea's kau is 
July - August 






'ele'ele, limu 


Kaina 


Interview 


Also limu lauoho. 


limu lauoho 




'ele'ele, limu 


Kaalakea 


Audio 


If there is fresh water, get. If there is no fresh water, no limu 'ele'ele. 







Table 1 
Audio/ Video/ Interview Data 






LIMUNAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER #& 
LATIN NAME 


'eie'ele, limu 


Ewaiiko 


Audio 


$4/quart, limu 'eie'ele, ho'okomo i loko o ka stew meat. Na kau o ka limu, 'elua 
manawa o ka makahiki, puka mai keia limu. When ua, wash all the dirt, pau ka 
lepo, a laila ulu mai ka limu, ma'ma'e. Huki me ka lima a ho'oma'ema'e. 

Luhi ka nana 'ana. Aia a miko, 'ono. 'A'ole 'ala ka limu i keia mau la, nui na mea 
o ke kahawai e holo nei. 1 pule ka waiho 'ana i loko o ka 'omole ma ka pahu hau. 
Have to freeze it after. Uliuli, 'o ia ka pololei. Pala mai ma hope (hakeakea mai). 

'Oi aku ka uliuli ma mua o ka pala. 'O ka mea hou ka mea pokopoko. Ma Kahala 
Hilton. 






'eie'ele, limu 


Kauahipaula 


Video: 
'AM 


Ke kau ka limu 'eie'ele, loloa. 






'eie'ele, limu 


Garmon 


Interview 


This limu likes to grow where there is some flow in the water (fresh). You collect ii 
by pinching a little at a time so it doesn't get sandy. 






'eie'ele, limu 


Aiona 


Interview 


My dad told me about his mother picking 'eie'ele and that when they went to pick 
it, they needed to do it VERY carefully so no sand would be mixed in with it. She 
would give them lickings if it were sandy. 






'eie'ele, limu 


Howard 


Interview 


She picks up this limu at Punalu'u Beach, growing on the rocks and in the sand at 
the intertidaf area (where the freshwater springs are). 




KA062LIMU 
Enteromorpha 
prolifera (Muller) 
J. Agardh 


eneiroe liimi 


Diego 


Interview 


Red with leaves, skinny on bottom and branching on top, smooth. Also called turtle 
limu 






General Limu 


Haanio 


Audio 


'A'ole nui loa i keia manawa. Kapulu Icahakai, lepo. Ma mua, kapu kahakai, 'a'ole 
k&pulu 'ia. Ma mua he wahi no ka 'au'au, 'a'ole 'au'au ma na 'ano wahi like 'ole. 







Table 1 
Audio/Video/Interview Data 



era 



LIMUNAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER # & 
LATIN NAME 


General Lirau 


Ellis 


Video; 
'AM 


Remembers eating 'ele'ele, lipoa, Hpe'epe'e, limu wawae'iole. 






General Limu 




Video: 

"AM 


A list is prepared of limu: limu kohu, limu lipoa, limu 'ele'ele, limu manauea, limu 
kala, limu Hpe'epe'e, limu wawae'iole, limu huluhuluwaena, limu 'opihi. 






General Limu 


Kaanana 


Video: 

'AM 


'Ako i ka limu. 






General Limu 


Serrano 


Video: 
AM 


Remembers eating kohu, 'ele'ele, manauea, lipoa, Hpe'epe'e. If you huki the limu i 
will be gone, 'ohi limu is the correct way. Lipoa is eaten with fish, lipe'epe'e is 
salted and eaten with poi or 'opelu. These days there isn't lirau like before. 






General Limu 


Kaina 


Interview 


Maka'alae is the main spot for limu in Hana. Hana does not have certain limu like 
Lahaina side like huluhuluwaena, ogo, etc. Those types of limu like dirty water, 
where Hana has clean water. 

Lots of rain makes the limu grow long. The 'opu of the enenue has limu that you 
can rinse and eat with poke. 






General Limu 


Keohokalole 


Video: 
'AM 


'Ohi limu ks ma'ema'e ke kai. Kai nui, nui ka lepo. Nui ka limu ma Kane'ohe. 
Remembers 'ele'ele and huluhuluwaena. 






General limu 


AhQuin 


Interview 


Manawea, waiwai'eole, li peepee, kohu, lipoa, hulu hulu waina, maneo neo, owaka 
waka, kala, opihi (2 types), node, ribbon. Kau - season thereof. Kihei - Garden of 
Eden. Turtle feed from July to September at Kawailoa, O'ahu. 

Pollution and overharvesting changed the limu. His kumu was mostly Helen 
Ho'opi'i Kenolio - "Limu Lady of Maui" - Kihei. Foreign limu is taking over the 
reefs. When gutting fish, you can observe the types of limu that fish eat. 






General limu 


Kaalakea 


Audio 


Kopekope i ka limu a hana po'opo'o. 'Oko'a ka limu i keia manawa. 







Table 1 
Audio /Video/ Interview Data 






LIMUNAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER #& 
LATIN NAME 


hinakea 


Haanio 


Audio 


Limu kama'aina o Kona. U!u palaha ma ka pohaku pahoehoe. Kopekope me ka 
pahi, ku'i i ka hale, Limu kai kela, a'ole 'ai pa' a like me ka llpe'epe'e..." 'A'ala, 
*ono. 






hinaula 


Haanio 


Audio 


Limu kama' aina o Kona. Ulu palaha ma ka pOhaku pahoehoe. Kopekope me ka 
pahi, ku'i i ka hale. Limu kai kela, Vole 'ai pa"a like me ka llpe'epe'e..." 'A'ala, 
l ono. 






huluhuluwaena 


AhQuin 


Interview 


With ake. With squid. 






huluhuluwaena 


Kaalakea 


Audio 


Mixed with ake. 






huluhuluwaena 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


Ma Kahala Hilton. Ulu pu me ka limu uliuli. Ho 1 ohui ' ia me ke ake. 1 kalani 
huluhuluwaena, 5 kalani ake. 'Ula'ula keia limu. 






huluhuluwaena 


Kaina 


Interview 


Mixed with ake. 






huluhuluwaena 


Garmon 


Interview 


Grows on coral. Her grandmother was the "ake person" of her time - she was 
famous for making the huluhuluwaena with ake (raw beef liver) for everyone. Then 
her mother (Aunty Edith) became the "ake person". 






huluhuluwaena, limu 


Howard 


Interview 


Picks up this limu at PunahTu Beach (Hawaf i) growing in the shallow area in the 
sand (where there is fresh water springs under ground). 




KA065LIMU 
Grateloupia 
filicina 

(Lamoroux) C. 
Agardh 


hulu'ilio 


Garmon 


Interview 


This limu is soft like wool (recognized from picture in Magruder book). 







Table 1 
Audio/Video/Interview Data 



o 



LIMIT NAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER # & 

LATIN NAME 


huna 


Garmon 


Interview 


Doesn't eat this type of limu (recognized from picture in Magruder book). 






iliau 


Kaina 


Interview 


Lavvalu or boiled and thea fed to the enenue. It gives them diarrhea. Come back 1-2 
days later and hook them with the same iimu tied to the hook. Also gives pig 
diarrhea. If in the sun, turns yellow. 




KA034LIMU 
Ahnfeltiopsis 
concinna (J. 
Agardh) Silva et 
DeCew 


kahili 


Garmon 


Interview 


This is the really tough limu that looks like a kahili (Turbinaria ornata ). 




Turbinaria 
ornata (Turner) J, 
Agardh 


kala 


AhQuin 


Interview 


Enenue feed on kala, ribbon, etc. 






kala, limu 


Kaina 


Interview 


Certain type is eaten. Some people cook it to soften it. 






kala, limu 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


'A'ole 'ai 'ia, he maunu a he la'au. Kekahi po'e 'oki'oki a 'ai. 






kala, limu 


Garmon 


Interview 


Never ate limu kala, it was used ceremonially. 






kala, limu 


Kaanana 


Interview 


According to the old stories, the kukini (the chiefs fastest runners) would use limu 
kala to wrap living fish that the chief desired and bring them long distances to the 
chief (and it would still be living. 






kala, limu 


Howard 


Interview 


She doesn"t eat this one. 




KA066LIMU 

Sargassum 
echinocarpum J. 
Agardh 



Table 1 
Audio/Video/ Interview Data 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER #& 
LATIN NAME 


kanaloa, limu 


Kapahulehua 


Interview 


A type of edible limu. 






kilie 


Haanio 


Audio 


"Ai me ka 'opihi, fa maka. Limu kama'aina o Kona. Limu kai kela, Vole 'ai pa 1 a 
like me ka lipe'epe^e..." ' A'ala, 'ono. 






kohu 


AhQuin 


Interview 


Color and iodine depends on area gathered. November , April is kau. Red one has 
low iodine. 






kohu, limu 


Kama 


Interview 


The best. Crisp, strong smell. Lots of rain makes limu grow , the kohu can get 
really long. 




KA002LIMU 
Asparagopsis 
taxiformis 
(Delile) Trevisan 


kohu, limu 


Poepoe 


Video: 
TME 


Mo'omomi has the best limu kohu. There are two ways to pick limu: cutting, 
pulling but leaving the roots behind. 






kohu, limu 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


$20f omole (quart), limu kohu. Aia i waho loa kgia limu, 'ula'ula. Wae 'iaka mea 
a pau a ho'oku i loko o ka wai pa'akai. I kekahi la, helek'i mai ka lepo a pau loa. 

A maema'e, 'okfoki a kopl hou. Ke huki mai *oe, hemo pu mai n6 me ke one, a 
lawe 'oe i ka mea o lalo aia ka limu i luna. 'O lalo, aia i laila ke kumu. 






kohu, limu 


Wong 


Interview 


About four days after it rains, you can go get the limu kohu. This is the main limu 
eaten on Ni'ihau. 






kohu, limu 


Kauahipaula 


Video: 

'AM 


Huki i ka limu kohu. 







Table 1 
Audio/Video/ Interview Data 






LIMUNAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER #& 
LATIN NAME 


kohu, limu 




Video: 

"AM 


Ki'i 'ia i ka manawa kai malo'o ma hope o ka ua nui. Ho'oku i loko o ka wai a ao 
ka po, a laila e ho'oma'ema'e a kopl i ka pa'akai. 






kohu, limu 


Ellis 


Video: 
'AM 


KauaTs kohu is loloa (long) where it is 'oki 'ia. O'ahu's kohu is pokopoko (short). 






kohu, limu 


Lind 


Interview 


Method for planting limu kohu. Take back the roots (holdfasts) that sometimes 
come out when picking this limu, and stuff them into little holes in the reef where 
limu kohu normally grows. 






kohu, limu 


Howard 


Interview 


She picks up this limu at a place called laupapa 'ohua (reef with manini fish 
babies). 




KA061LIMU 

Asparagopsis 
taxiformis 
(Deliie) Trevisan 


ko'eie 


Howard 


Interview 


She picks up this limu at a place called laupapa 'ohua (reef with manini fish 
babies). This limu is eaten with 'opihi. 


ko'ele'ele 
(also nei) 


KA064LIMU 

Ahnfeltiopsis 
flabelliformis 
(Havey) Masuda 


ko'eie, limu 


Ellis 


Video: 

'AM 


Uaua. Ulu me kaha'uke'uke. 






ko'ele'ele 


Howard 


Interview 


She picks up this limu at a place called laupapa 'ohua (reef with manini fish 
babies). This limu is eaten with 'opihi. 


ko'eie (also 

nei) 


KA064LIMU 

Ahnfeltiopsis 
flabelliformis 
(Havey) Masuda 


lepe-a-Hina, limu-a- 
Hina 


Ah Quin 


Interview 


Red and slimy. Eaten with lemon and soiu. 






llpe'epe'e 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


" Aina Haina. Crunchy. 'Oi aku ka "ono o ka fipe'epe'e ma mua o ka manauea. 







Table 1 
Audio /Video/ Interview Data 






L1MUNAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER # & 

LATIN NAME 


llpe'epe'e 


Keohokalole 


Video: 

'AM 


Season is Kekemapa, New Year. Kualoa has that kind of good limu. 






llpe'epe'e 


Kauahipaula 


Video: 
'AM 


MaNanakuli. Aia i lalo o ka 'aki'aki 






ltpe'e'pe'e 


Haanio 


Audio 


Loa'a ma Kona, 'a'ole nui. 






ltpe'e'pe'e 


Howard 


Interview 


She picks up this limu at a place called laupapa 'Shua (reef with manini fish 
babies). 




KA06SLIMU 
Laurencia sp. 


lipoa 


Kaina 


Interview 


There are different kinds of lipoa. 






lipoa 


Wong 


Interview 


The kala and nenue eat the lipoa. On Ni'ihau, there is a lot of lipoa, but the Ni'ihau 
people consider it '5pala (rubbish). When it is the right season, the ocean is thick 
with lipoa and it washes up on the sand making a very strong smelJ. 






lipoa 


Haanio 


Audio 


Loa'a ma Kona, 'a'ole nui. 






lipoa 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


Holoi no 'oe, kaka 'oe a 'oki'oki. Ho'okomo i loko o ka 'omole. Maunalua used to 
be (Hawai'i Kai now). He manawa no e pae mai. 'A'ole hana lei 'ia, he mea'ai 
wale no. 






lipoa 


Ellis 


Video: 

'AM 


WaikikI is onaona i ka lipoa. 






lipoa | 


Ah Quin 


Interview 


Kau is February on Maui. 







Table 1 
Audio/Video/ Interview Data 



* 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER # & 
LATIN NAME 


JTpoa 


Garmon 


Interview 


Her all time favorite limu is llpoa. 






llpu'upu'u 


Keohokalole 


Video: 

'AM 


Eaten with salt salmon. 






make, limu 


Kaina 


Interview 


Out Muolea side. 






manauea 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


Palupalu mai ko kakou manauea ma mua o ka ogo. "Oki'oki e like me ka limu 
kohu. 'A'ohe maika'i ka mea pu'upu'u. Nana 'oe i ka mea 'akahi no a puau (?) mai 
i nuna. Ki'i i ka mea ha'ula, maika'i. 'AinaHaina. 






manauea 


Kaalakea 


Audio 


Pakepakg ke hou. Palahe mai i ka wai wela. 






manauea 


Haanio 


Audio 


"Ai'ia, he mea ho'ohuihui. 






manauea 


Garmon 


Interview 


Recognized from picture in Magruder book. 






manauea 


Anamizu 


Interview 


Kahuku Point still has a lot of manauea growing in the limestone depressions. If 
you're not going to eat it all, it can be preserved with some salt in ajar and 

refrigerated. 




KA059LIMU 

Gracilaria 
coronopifolia J. 
Agardh 



Table 1 
Audio/ Video/ Interview Data 






LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER #& 
LATIN NAME 


nanui 


Kaina 


Interview 


Looks like lipoa. It is also eaten. It has # stronger smell than Hpoa and you can 
smell it when driving onHaraoaRoad sometimes. It has seasons when it floats in 
and is eaten by the enenue. 

When you cut the 'opu of the enenue, you can rinse the insides and mix that limu 
(which is already chopped up for you) with the poke. 






nei 


Kaina 


Interview 


'Opihi limu, oldtimers eat with ^opihi (picked when dark). Smooth and crunchy. 


(also ko'ele, 
kci'ele'ele) 


KA028LIMU 

Ahnfeltiopsis 
flabeliiformis 
(Havey) Masuda 


ogo, limu 


iu 


Video: 
'AM 


'Ohi i ka limu. Before, limu ogo was rubbish. 






ogo, limu 


Keohokalole 


Video: 
'AM 


Nui ma Kualoa. 






opihi limu 


Ah Quin 


Interview 


1) Green with clusters. 2) Long red. 






'opihi limu 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


Hiki no ke 'ai. 






'opihi, limu 


Kaafakea 


Audio 


Pupupu kona 'ano. Kuku 'o lalo. 






'opihi, limu 


Ellis 


Video: 
'AM 


'A'ole maopopo ka inoa maoli. 







Table 1 

Audio/ Video/ Interview Data 






LIMUNAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER # & 
LATIN NAME 


owakawaka 


AhQuin 


Interview 


Dark brown, lettuce like, brittle. 






'owakawaka 


Keohokalole 


Video: 

'AM 


Type of iimu. 






pahapaha 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


Pae mai no o ia, uliuli. ' Ai ka po'e kepani, "oki'oki me ka soiu a he aha la. 






palie'e 


Haanio 


Audio 


Ulu ma ka lae o Pahe'ehe'e ka inoa. Ho'okahi ulu 'ana o ka makahiki. 






pahe'e 


Garmon 


Interview 


Recognized from picture in Magruder book. 






pakeleawa'a 


Sanborn 


Audio 


Limu planting. They did it. "Chop-chop" is taken on small stones. Don't uproot. 
Doesn't grow in rough water, likes sand. Grows at low tide, long. More "ono at 
some places because of the spring water. 

If a woman is pe'a, Vole hele i ka hana, haumia. ' A'ole komo i ke kai. 






pakoa 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


Pahe'e loa. Ulu i luna o ka pohaku a me ke one. Palupalu, kohu kilika. 






palahalaha 


Garmon 


Interview 


Put into soup after you turn the fire off (recognized from picture in Magruder 
book). 






palahalaha 


Howard 


Interview 


She doesn't eat this limu but she knows some people eat it with shoyu (Japanese 
style). 




KA063L1MV 
Ulvafasciata 
Detile 



Table 1 
Audio /Video/ Interview Data 



4i 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER # & 

LATIN NAME 


pe'epe'e, limu 


Kaina 


Interview 


Grows in cracks, plenty down Maka'alae. Old kind has coral sometimes, so you 
shouldn't pick that one. 






pehu, limu 


Kaina 


Interview 


Looks just like kohu, except it flattens when taken out of the water. Doesn't have a 
strong smell like kohu and it tastes hot. He knows of one guy that puts it in his stew 
to give it a hot flavor. 






puha 


Garmon 


Interview 


Seasonal limu that likes water flow (recognized from picture in Magruder book). 






turtle limu 


Kaina 


Interview 


Green limu that grows down Hana Bay. 






turtle limu 


Diego 


Interview 


Red with leaves, skinny on bottom and branching on top, smooth. Also called 
enenue limu 






'ula, limu 


Kapahulehua 


Interview 


Red, looks like Rpoa, 






wawae'iole 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


Aia no i waho. 'A'ole makemake i ka mea pae mat. Ki'i i ka mea, aia no ma laila. 
'A'ole maika'i ka mea nunui loa, ka mea makalPi mai no. '0 kameamakali'i mai 
ka mea helu 'ekahi. Pipili i ka 'ako'ako'a. 

"Hana 'oe me ka ma'ema'e, 'ai n5 'oe me ka ma'ema'e, 'a'ole kapulu." Lawe 1 
kalani kai a ho'okomo ka wawae'iole, mau no ke ko'i'i, 'a'ole patupalu. Falupalu i 
ka wai maoli. Ina 'a'ole kai, pa'akai, kopT a miko. 


'a'ala'ula 




wawae'iole 


Kaina 


Interview 


Hana mostly has the kind that lies flat on the rocks, not the one that branches 
upright from the sand and sways. 




KA060LIMU 
Codium arabicum 
Kiitzing 


wawae'iole 


Garmon 


Interview 


Recognized from picture in Magruder book. 







Table 1 
Audio/Video/ Interview Data 



LIMUNAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER #& 
LATIN NAME 


wawae'iole, lirau 


Keohokalole 


Video: 
'AM 


Has atHau'ula. 







■ti- 



Discussion 

Of the 229 distinct Hawaiian limu names compiled, 172 
were unduplicated names (i.e. "pe "epe "e" , " pe ^epe ^e, limu" , 
" lipe^epe^e" are all considered duplicates). 30 The 
association of 36 names with actual limu has been 
documented through previous studies (of which I am 
confident because of confirmations through my studies), the 
association of 5 names with actual limu has been documented 
through this study, and 87 names have documented 
information about them but have not been associated with 
actual limu. 21 This may be one of the largest lists of 
indigenous folk names for edible algae in the world. With 
half of these names unassociated with actual limu, there is 
a need to further this research and record these 
associations. 

Through meeting people who use and have knowledge 
about limu I was able to learn a great deal. Therefore, I 
accept the first hypothesis, concluding that there are 



30 There are probably more duplicates in this list of 172 names but they 
haven't been identified yet. 

31 See Appendix B for the breakdown of this data. 



49 



people remaining who can recognize and identify Hawaiian 
limu. Hearing Hawaiian names of limu that I had only 
previously read about made for exciting times. It's a very 
good feeling when you have found someone that knows other 
limu names that you have not heard of before. A diminishing 
breed, the limu gatherers are still around. I anticipate 
that the current trend of fewer people learning about the 
"less famous" limu will continue and efforts to record such 
information will become progressively more difficult. 

There was a wide range of information gathered from 
various informants and from the literature search. 
Approximately 10% (103 out of 980) of the data entries in 
the Limu Database came from oral interviews that I 
conducted or were recorded by audio /video (Ka Leo Hawai'i, 
etc.). Though my main interest was in recording the 
Hawaiian names and uses along with collecting the samples, 
other types of information including distributions, 
seasonality of limu for different locations, and 
interesting anecdotes were also brought forth. For example, 
it is clear that there are certain types of limu that are 

50 



seasonal (i.e. limu pahe^e, limu ^ele^ele, llpoa) while 
others can be found year around (i.e. limu kohu, limu 
wawae^iole) . And then there are certain times that are good 
for picking limu (i.e. during the quarter phases of the 
moon because of the mild tide fluctuations making it less 
likely that the limu will be "sunburnt", or a couple of 
days after heavy rains for limu kohu because the limu will 
be longer). While all informants knew intimately what kinds 
of limu were in their own "backyard" , some were even aware 
of distributions of certain limu (especially the kinds not 
available at home) for other parts of the island. For 
example, Blondie Kaina told me that limu huluhuluwaena, 
limu "eie"ele, and limu ogo among others can't be found in 
abundance in Hana or on the East side of Maui in general, 
but that these were limu that thrive in the waters of 
Kihei, Lahaina, Kanaha, etc. probably because of the water 
conditions (nutrients, temperature, salinity, etc.). while 
information about distribution and seasonality of limu 
gained from this research was more anecdotal, future 
research focusing on these aspects for different types of 

51 



limu could be very useful and important for tracking the 
change of limu availability over time. 

A common theme that I encountered was that the limu 
isn't like it used to be. Whether the taste is different or 
it isn't abundant like before, it seems that the limu is 
changing because of social and environmental changes. The 
reasons for this change, according to some of the 
informants (Elizabeth Ewaliko), are a combination of 
pollution of our waters and greediness of some people who 
take everything they can get. The trend seems to be the 
same for fish according to many casual conversations with 
old-timer fisherman who can reminisce about more abundant 
times . 

The informants I spoke with agreed that picking limu 
should not be done by pulling and uprooting the limu, but 
by carefully plucking the limu to leave behind the 
holdfasts. By using this collection method, you would also 
be conserving the resource and assuring that there would be 
more upon your return. None of my informants were 
commercial fishermen and each was tied very closely to 

52 



their respective places where they "pick up" limu because 
of their long tradition of gathering at those places 32 and 
because it was their home area, so this may have had a 
bearing on the methods that they used (sustainable harvest 
for the family versus harvest for economic gain). 

As far as uses other than edible, only Aunty "Ulu 
Garmon mentioned ceremonial use (limu kala) and one used 
for cursing (limu ^aki^aki) . This may be because I did not 
ask specifically for these uses or because I spoke with 
people who primarily use limu for food and this was my 
obvious interest during interviews. Perhaps if I 
interviewed kahuna (la"au lapa"au) I might have learned 
more about medicinal and ceremonial uses of limu. 

Admittedly, my second hypothesis is a complex 
statement that is easily supported. Simply find a single 
informant that can tell you what, how, where and why they 
pick limu and it's just about covered. The real question is 
how much and what kind of traditional knowledge about limu 



32 Place is an important component of Hawaiian culture because of the 
connection one has to the land, people, culture, and history of one's 
birthplace. If the connection is strong it will translate into pride 
and result in care of the place. 



53 



is still kept in the minds of modern practitioners as 
compared to earlier times and how much of the old knowledge 
is left. For the purpose of this report and based on what I 
did learn from my informants , I also accept the second 
hypothesis that there was a wide range of limu knowledge 
that different informants covered. The crucial question, 
however, still remains- how does the current collective 
pool of traditional limu knowledge compare with the same 
pool 100 years ago (or 200 years ago, or 100 years from now 
for that matter 1 )? Part of this question was answered in 
the reflections of a few informants reminiscing of the old 
folks that they remember and revered who used to know "all 
the limu and their uses". 

This question about the direction that the information 
that we desperately try to record and conserve is going 
made me question how this body of information evolves . My 
initial belief was that the pool of traditional information 
can only get smaller because of the inability of a person 
to pass on absolutely all knowledge to another. This might 
be true, depending on the definition of "traditional." One 

54 



of the personal hurdles that this research project has 
allowed me to 1) identify, and 2) accept and overcome, is 
the ideal that young Hawaiians are often searching for in 
their quest to gain knowledge about our culture and 
history. This ideal is the search for information, whether 
it pertains to culture, history, botany, etc., that pre- 
dates contact with Captain Cook in 177 8 because of its 
"true and untainted" nature, which makes it "traditional." 
My quest was the same, to be able to identify what 
information/practices was "truly Hawaiian", and what was 
developed/introduced/modified after contact. This ideal was 
becoming an obstacle for me because it was becoming the 
tool that I used to gauge all information. "Is this 
traditional or is this post-contact?" It was a problem 
because it devalued information that was gained through 
experience. It also dictates that things cannot be given 
Hawaiian names, or practices cannot be evolved without the 
stigma that they are "non-traditional." This is a problem 
for me because we are Hawaiian. No more and no less than 
the Hawaiians pre-Captain Cook. This research has taught me 

55 



to discard my ideals of traditional vs. non-traditional and 
accept that we are what we are by learning from our own 
experiences as well as from the past. 

As expected, the informant's knowledge was directly 
related to the place that he/she learned about limu, while 
most informants were aware of different limu that grew 
outside of his/her harvesting areas, the majority of 
knowledge came from his/her harvesting grounds. Part of the 
reason why this is so is because the people I spoke with 
have a practical knowledge base. They know what they know 
by doing and most of them learned about limu from their 
elders when they were young. A trend that we may see grow 
as the world becomes a "smaller" place because of the 
media, higher education, and the world wide web, is that 
people's knowledge will become "homogenized." My knowledge 
about limu is the perfect example. I come out of this 
research knowing a heck of a lot about limu but it is from 
reading books , listening to tapes and videos , and 
interviewing people from many different places. I may know 
a lot, but my information is not distinctly tied to place 

56 



or practicality. This is not necessarily a bad thing but it 
is very acultural as Hawaiian culture goes because of the 
importance of tying things to place. Where the information 
comes from is just as important as the information itself. 

There is a small industry developing in the way of 
limu cultivation. Limu farms in Kona and Moloka^i (Machado 
"ohana) are currently producing limu ogo for sale at 
markets on most, if not all, of the Hawaiian Islands. 
Additionally, the recent resurgence in fishpond restoration 
on the main islands (Hawai^i, Maui, Moloka"i, CTahu, and 
Kaua'i) has sparked interest in the cultivation of limu 
within fishponds for food (both for fish and human 
consumption) and stabilization of the fishpond. 

If the term cultivation is used loosely, it can also 
be applied to most limu gatherers who visit the same 
locations frequently to collect. These limu gatherers 
develop an intimate understanding of the locality, its 
conditions, and the particular limu that they collect. By 
harvesting properly (leaving the "roots" behind), 
occasionally weeding undesirable, encroaching limu, and in 

57 



one case, replanting roots in different locations (John 
Lind plants limu kohu roots that accidentally make it into 
his harvest), the practical limu harvester is, in fact, 
tending and cultivating his/her limu. 



58 



CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 

Embarking on scientific research that aims to 
elucidate information from within my culture was very hard 
for me. There are still lingering feelings of resentment 
towards the whole process within myself. Before starting 
the research, I wrestled with the idea of intracultural 
research and, particularly, which methods would be 
acceptable to my culture. I wanted to learn about the names 
and uses of different limu in a casual, culturally 
appropriate setting so that I could perpetuate these 
traditions with my cmn family and to document this 
information for future generations. These goals did not 
always mesh nicely with some of my doubts and fears about 
the process. 

There were a number of things about the scientific 
process that made this project uncomfortable. Informed 
consent, while extremely important and ethical, was very 
awkward for me personally, especially because I wanted to 
preserve an informal setting. Asking for verbal /written 
consent made me feel like there was something about this 

59 



experience to be suspicious of. I was also terrified of 
rejection. I think a person who is learning from a culture 
other than his/her own is better able to deal with 
rejection. I was afraid of being rejected by people within 
my own culture and any kind of lasting effects that it 
might have on the perception of me in the eyes of that 
informant, his/her family, and broader community. In a 
sense I did not want to be viewed primarily as a scientist 
trying to gather information rather than a Hawaiian wanting 
to learn about his own culture . 

Something that bothered me that springs from my own 
personal culture, not necessarily Hawaiian or local culture 
is that I didn't want to be a burden to these people. While 
most of them seemed to enjoy sharing their mana^o, it 
nevertheless concerned me that I would be taking up too 
much of their time. 

I also struggled with the idea of learning from 
multiple kumu or sources. Learning things like picking and 
eating limu were traditionally passed on in the natural 
process of young ones doing these things with their family. 

60 



Because I'm older and don't have family that can teach me 
about these things, and I wished to learn about limu names 
and uses from different areas, I had to sacrifice natural, 
cultural way of learning these things from relatively few, 
familial sources and learn from whoever was willing to 
share. 

On top of all these other concerns, there was a 
pressure to collect enough data to fulfill the requirements 
of a Master's thesis within a certain time frame. Very few 
people really want to be a student forever but are proud of 
being life-long learners. This project is one for the life- 
long learner. While the information learned and presented 
thus far may fulfill the academic requirements , the work of 
learning, documenting, and perpetuating the use of limu 
throughout Hawai^i will never be complete. 

I have learned a lot about myself through this 
research process. I think that people should be encouraged 
to learn and document information from our knowledgeable 
elders if it is something they are comfortable with. The 
wealth of information that slowly dies away as our kupuna 

61 



pass on, whether it be about limu or plants or place names 
or family mo"olelo should be recorded for the richness of 
our culture and to memorialize today, tomorrow's past. 



62 



REFERENCES 

Abbott, Isabella Aiona. 1947. Brackish-water algae from the 
Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Science (1947) 1 (4): 193 - 

214. 

. 1992. La^au Hawai'i: Traditional Hawaiian uses 

of plants. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. 

. 1996 Revised (1974). Limu an ethnobotanical 

study of some Hawaiian seaweeds. Lawai: Pacific 
Tropical Botanical Garden. 

„ 1999. Marine red algae of the Hawaiian Islands. 

Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. 

Ah Quin, Sam. Personal Interview. August 2001. 

"Aha Manaleo (1998: Hawai'i). Limu Conference. Videotape 
15429 (Sinclair AV Center). 

Aiona, William Thomas. Personal Interview. October 2001. 

Alexiades, Miguel N. 1996. Selected guidelines for 

ethnobotanical research: A field manual. New York: New 
York Botanical Garden. 

Anamizu, Carol and Joy. Personal Interview. August 2001. 

Andrews, Lorrin. 1974 (First published in 1865). A 

dictionary of the Hawaiian language, to which is 
appended an English-Hawaiian vocabulary and a 
chronological table of remarkable events. Rutland, 
Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle Company. 

Berlin, Brent. 1992. Ethnobiological classification: 

Principles of categorization of plants and animals in 
traditional societies. Princeton, N. J. : Princeton 
University Press. 



63 



Bryan, E. H. Jr. 1933. Hawaiian nature notes. Honolulu: 
Star-Bulletin Publishing Co., pp. 138 - 143. 

Chamberlain, J. E. 1881. Algae of the Hawaiian Islands. 
Hawaiian Annual {1881) 7: 32 - 33. 

Doty, Maxwell S. 1957. List of published Hawaiian names for 
seaweeds. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Botany 

Department . 

Ewaliko, Elizabeth. Ka Leo Hawai^i. University of Hawai'i 
at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.90A. 

Garmon, "Ulu. Personal Interview. October 2001. 

Gaudichaud, Charles. 1826. Voyage Autour du Monde. Paris, 

p. 148. 

Given, David R. and Warwick Harris. 1994. Techniques and 

methods of ethnobotany. New Zealand: The Commonwealth 
Secretariat. 

Haanio, Mary Ahio. 1960. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW106.2.2. 

Handy, E. S. Craighill. 1940. The Hawaiian planter, Vol. I. 
Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Bulletin 161. 

Henriques-Peabody Collection. Names of Hawaiian birds, 

shore fauna, and seaweeds. Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi 
Bishop Museum Archives. MS HENI, p. 863. 

Howard, Jeanette Kaualani Akiu. Personal Interview. October 
2001. 

Judd, Henry P. 1930. Hawaiian proverbs and riddles. 

Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Bulletin 77. 



64 



Kaaiakamanu, D. M. , J. K. Akina, and Akaiko Akana 
{translation). 1968 (1922). Hawaiian herbs of 
medicinal value. Honolulu: Territorial Board of Health 
Bulletin, reprinted by Pacific Book House. 

Kaalakea, Kawika. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai^i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.178A. 

Kaanana, Edward. Personal Interview. March 2001. 

Kaina, Joseph "Blondie". Personal Interview (Wilfred Kala, 
John Kiambao, Masu Hashimoto, Milton Diego, and others 
included). January 2001. 

Kapahulehua, Kawika. Personal Interview. May 2001. 

Kimura, Larry. 1974. Ka Leo Hawai'i: Interview with 
Elizabeth Ewaliko. University of Hawai v i Audio 
Archives HV 24.90A 

Lind, John. Personal Interview. May 2001. 

MacCaughey, Vaughan. 1916. The seaweeds of Hawaii. American 
Journal of Botany (1916) 8: 474-479. 



. 1917. The algae of the Hawai'ian Archipelago. 

Hawaiian Annual (1918) 44: 129-155. 

Magruder, William H. and Jeffrey W. Hunt. 1979. Seaweeds of 
Hawaii a photographic identification guide. Honolulu: 
The Oriental Publishing Company. 

Miller, Harvey Alfred. 1951. Limu: The ethnic uses of 

Hawaiian algae. Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 
Archives. QK Bot. Pam. 2701. 

Neal, Marie C. 1930. Hawaiian marine algae. Honolulu: 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Bulletin 67. 



65 



Pukui, Mary Kawena. 1960. Interview with Winifred Sanborn, 
Alice Aki, I. Ashdown. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 
Audiotape Archives. A Haw 84.6.1. 



. 1983. "Olelo no'eau. Hawaiian proverbs and 

poetical sayings. Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop 
Museum Special Publication No. 71. 

Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Samuel H. Elbert. 1986. Hawaiian 
Dictionary. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 

Reed, Minnie. 1907. The economic seaweeds of Hawaii and 
their food value. Ann. Report Hawaii Agricultural 
Experiment Station 1906: 61-88. 

Setchell, William Albert. 1905. Limu. University of 

California Publications: Berkeley The University 
Press. 2 (3): 91-113. 

The Molokai Experience. KHET-TV. 1996. Videotape 15591 
(Sinclair AV Center). 

Tilden, Josephine 1905. Algae collecting in the Hawaiian 
Islands. The Hawaiian Annual (1905)??: 131-145. 

Wong, Ipo. Personal Interview. May 2001. 



66 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Full Reference Key 



SOURCE 


FULL REFERENCE 


Abbott 1947 


Abbott, Isabella Aiona. 1947. Brackish-Water Algae from the Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Science (1947) 
1(4): 193 -214. 


Abbott 1996 


Abbott, Isabella Aiona. 1996 Revised (1974). Limu an ethnobotanical study of some Hawaiian 
seaweeds. Lawai: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. 


Ah Quin 


Ah Quin, Sam. Personal Interview. August 2001. 


Aiona 


Aiona, William Thomas. Personal Interview. October 2001 . 


Akana 


Kaaiakamanu, D. M, J. K. Akina, and Akaiko Akana (translation). 1 968 (1 922). Hawaiian herbs of 
medicinal value. Honolulu: Territorial Board of Health Bulletin, reprinted by Pacific Book House. 


Anamizu 


Anamizu, Carol and Joy. Personal Interview. August 2001. 


Andrews 


Andrews, Lorrin. 1974 (First published in 1865). A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language, to which is 
appended an English-Hawaiian Vocabulary and a Chronological Table of Remarkable Events. Rutland, 
Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle Company. 


Bryan 


Bryan, E. H. Jr. 1933. Hawaiian Nature Notes. Honolulu: Star-Bulletin Publishing Co., pp. 138 - 143. 


Chamberlain 


Chamberlain, J, E. 1881. Algae of the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaiian Annual (1881) 7: 32-33. 


Diego 


Kaina, Joseph "Blondie". Personal Interview (Wilfred Kala, John Kiambao, Masu Hashimoto, Milton 
Diego, and others included). January 2001 . 


Doty 


Doty, Maxwell S. 1957. List of published Hawaiian names for seaweeds. Honolulu: University of 
Hawaii Botany Department. 


Ellis 


NaJani Ellis - 'Aha Manaleo (1998: Hawai'i). Limu Conference. Videotape 15429 (Sinclair AV Center). 


Ewaliko 


Ewaliko, Elizabeth. Ka Leo Hawai' i. University of Hawai'i at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.90A. 


Garmon 


Garmon, 'Ulu. Personal Interview. October 2001. 


Gaudichaud 


Gaudichaud, M. Charles. 1826. Voyage Autour du Monde. Paris, p. 148. 


Haanio 


Haanio, Mary Ahio. I960. Mary Kawena Pukut Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW106.2.2. 


Handy 


Handy, E. S. Craighill. 1940. The Hawaiian Planter, Vol. I. Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 
Bulletin 161. 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Full Reference Key 



Henriques- 
Peabody 


Henriques-Peabody Collection. Names of Hawaiian birds, shore fauna, and seaweeds. Honolulu: Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Archives. MS HEN1, p. 863. 


Howard 


Howard, Jeanette Kaualani Akiu. Personal Interview, October 2001. 


Hi 


Sarah 'Hi - 'Aha Manaleo (1998: Hawai'i). Limu Conference. Videotape 15429 (Sinclair AV Center). 


Kaalakea 


Kaalakea, Kawika. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawaii at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24, I78A. 


Kaanana 


Kaanana, Edward. Personal Interview. March 2001. 


Kaina 


Kaina, Joseph "Blondie". Personal Interview (Wilfred Kala, John Kiambao, Masu Hashimoto, Milton 
Diego, and others included). January 2001. 


Kapahukhua 


Kapahukhua, Kawika. Personal Interview. May 2001. 


Kauahipaula 


Elizabeth Kauahipaula - 'Aha Manaleo (1998: Hawai'i). Limu Conference. Videotape 15429 (Sinclair 
AV Center). 


Keohokalole 


Emma Keohokalole - 'Aha Manaleo (1998: Hawai'i). Limu Conference. Videotape 15429 (Sinclair AV 
Center). 


Lind 


Lind, John. Personal Interview. May 2001. 


MacCaughey 
1916 


MacCaughey, Vaughan. 1916. The seaweeds of Hawaii. American Journal of Botany (1916) 8: 474-479. 


MacCaughey 
1917 


MacCaughey, Vaughan. 1917. The algae of the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Hawaiian Annual (1918) 44: 
129-155. 


Magruder 


Magruder, William H. and Jeffrey W. Hunt. 1979. Seaweeds of Hawaii a photographic identification 
guide. Honolulu: The Oriental Publishing Company. 


Miller 


Miller, Harvey Alfred. 1951. Limu: the ethnic uses of Hawaiian algae. Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop 
Museum Archives. QK Bot. Pam. 2701. 


Neal 


Neal, Mary C. 1930. Hawaiian marine algae. Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Bulletin 67. 


Poepoe 


Mac Poepoe - The Molokai Experience. KHET-TV. 1996. Videotape 15591 (Sinclair AV Center). 


Pukui 


Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Samuel H. Elbert. 1986. Hawaiian Dictionary. Honolulu: University of 
Hawaii Press. 


Reed 


Reed, Minnie. 1907. The economic seaweeds of Hawaii and their food value. Ann. Report Hawaii 
Agricultural Experiment Station 1906: 61-88. 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Full Reference Key 



Sanborn 


Winifred Kalei Saffery Sanborn - Pukui, Mary Kawena. I960. Interview with Winifred Sanbor, Alice 
Aki, I, Ashdown. Bemi'ce Pauabi Bishop Museum Audiotape Archives. A HAW S4.6A. 


Serrano 


Hannah Serrano - 'Aha Manaleo (1998: HawaTi). Limu Conference. Videotape 15429 (Sinclair AV 
Center). 


Setchell 


Setchelt, William Albert. 1905. Limu. University of California Publications: Berkeley The University 
Press. 2 (3): 91-113. 


Simpson 


Simpson, Flora L. 1944. Memo to Seaweed Eaters. Paradise of the Pacific 56 (8): 5-6. 


Tilden 


Tilden, Joseph E. 1905. Algae collecting in the Hawaiian Islands. The Hawaiian Annual (1905)??: 131- 
145. 


Wong 


Wong, Ipo. Personal Interview. May 2001. 



Appendix A; Limu D9t*b»9* 
Page 1 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


aaki 


Hemiques- 
Feabody 


363 












aaliiuJa 


Setchell 


% 




pe'epee {Maui) 






Codium Muelleri Huetzimj 


aalaula 


Tilden 


L33 


Used, uncooked, as food. 








Co&iurr adhaerens {Cabr.} Agh and Codium 
xomtntoswn (Hnds.J Stackh 


a'Bla*u]s, 


Abbott 199G 


19 


Some people reserve this name iojCodium reediae but most use names 
interchatigabty. 








Codiwn reediae Silva 


A % ALA-ULA 


Doty 


I 


(Hawaf i) 








Ce&uBiMueMeri Kuetzing; C (ametUosam 
(Huds.) Stackh.; C. adherens (Cabr.J Ag. 


YaJa'ula 


Magruder 


25 










Codium mediae Silva 


a'aUula 


Pukui 


3 


Velvety-green, siKculeat-^peariag seaweeds, one of several species of Cjdium 
yields a red liquid when placed in b. conminer overnight with brine, after cnoppin 
or pounding. 

Both the liquid and the seaweed are well liked, being eaten plain or with outer 
food- (KL line 47.) *A'ala'u'a is the common name nn)£aua'] and Maui, 
ivflwac'iolc elsewhere. 


wawae'iole 






Codium 


■flala'ula 


Kfluah^wula 


Video: 
AM 


Hlahalalia. Nui ka uln 'ana, kohu 'upT. 










a-ala-ula, limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


L+t 


Plentiful in shallow water along Ihc reefs. 








C&dium adhtiervnx (Cabr.) Agardh; Cwfiwr 
tomentosum (Huds.) Stackh. 


a-Hla-ulg, Lunu 


MacCaughcy 
1917 


142 




limu wnwac-iolc. limu wawae- 
naoa 






Codium Muelleri Kuetzing 


aalaula, limu 


Neal 












Cudium lammtoxwrt (Huds.) Stackh. 


aalaula. limu 


Reed 


86 


Grow far oat on the coral rcefs or on exposed rocks in the surf. Dropped inla hot 
soup- or gravy as it is about to be served. Sometimes are ripened by soaking in 
fresh water. Often pounded very fine and mixed with pounded soiled squid. 








Co(&um adhaerenS (Cab r_) A gardh; Codiwn 
WtnAniosian {Huds.) Stackh. 


aalaula T Limu 


feed 


86 


Limu wawneiole or limu wawaimoa are found in use in some places on Hawaii, 
not common. Qrow far out on the coral reeffcm on exposed rocks in the surf 

Dropped into hoi soup or gravy us iiis about in be served. Sometimes are ripened 
by soaking in fresh water. 


limu Tvawaeiole, limu wawairaoa 






CoditimMuetltri Kuetzing 


salij 


Henriques- 
Pcabqdy 


uy 












ai-a-tohhomi 


Pufeui 


]D 


Same n huln nuum, 4 seaweed. Ul.. food of the turtle 


hulumanu 









Appendix A: Limu Database 
Paga 2 out Df 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYflONVMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


aka-akoa 


Bry&n 












Ectoearpus sp L 


AKA'AKO'A 


Doty 


1 










Etfocarpus MdSctts Sonder 


ika'ako'a 


Pukui 


12 


A vpriety of seaweed. 










aka-akoa, limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


146 


Plentiful along the coasts, in shallow wiler. Used by them (natives) for food. 


limuhulp-ilio 






E cf aedfpus Indicus Sander 


akaakoa, limu 


N«L 












Ectocarpus 


akaakiKl, limu 


R«d 


fie; 




limubuluilio 






Eciocarpus wdievs? Sonder. Eetoc&pus sp.7 


IkaLa 


Pukui 


L3 


Same as kala, a seaweed. 


kala 




Two endemic iaspbemes/ti*t>H5 spp. 




aki-aki 


Bryan 












Ahnjeidtto sp. J, 


akiaki 


Setchell 


93,96 


Commonly eaten on Hawai' i, eaten widi opihi and called Koeleele (K&waihae) 


koeleele, ekahakaha (Maui) 






AhnJetdtiG Palyitfes ArcscJi, A. twa-intta J r 
Agardh. A. Cigprlinoides S. Agardh 


AKIAKL 


Doty 


1 


(Kgw&i'i) 




koeleele; ek&hakahH 
(MacCaughey) 




AfoifeUia concinna I. \\$\,Ahife{lia potyitb>$ 
(IfoimtfAflrtfcltia concinna ) Ag,?] fide Reed) 


'aki'aki 


Magmder 


37 










Ahnfeltia concinna J. Ag. 


'aki'aki 


Pukui 


14 


A Hud af&wse red seaweed &fatfetoa.rmc/HM?}whkh becwise ofits 
toughness must be eaten in Mule bites; a good source ofcarageettin, a colloid. (KI 
line 41.) Called 'eleao on Maui. 


'ekau 




seashore rush gnus Qjperobolus virgmicus ) 


Ahnfeltia concirvia J. Ag. 


aki'aki 


Haanio 


Audio 


Ka'aikelnakahonu. A'ole'ai 'ia Jiiamiia.lohe 'oia aikaPilipuw. Kupaa 
moa a palupalu. 'A'ole keUS he ai na ka Hawaii. 










akiaki 


Howard 


Interview 


She doesn't eat this limu but it grows all over the rocks in Puna. 








Ahnfeltia concinna J. Ag. 


aki-gki, limu 


MacCaughey 
I9L7 


150 


This seaweed is relished by the natives and is commonly sold in die markets 


limu etc an 






Ahnfeltia tottcinna J. Ag. ' 


akiaki. limu 


Reed 


8o 


Umueleau on Maui. Grow quite near the tide line along shore, but on exposed 
black lava racks m rough wafer. Occasionally cooked in urni whan there was 
famine or war and tato and sweet potatoes were scarce. 

Cooked wiih boiled meats long enough for the gelatin to be softened or dissolved 
Substituted rat limu buna when cooked with squid or octopus. 


limu eleau (Maui only) 






Ahnfellto CQncirtna J. Ag. 



Appendix A: LAmu Database 
Page 3 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


shared names 


LATIN NAMES 


flkiaki, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












'aki'flki, limu 


Abbott 199d" 


29 


Baked with chicken or fish in imu. 


'el&au and awikiwiki (Maui), Ihni 
ko T tk'c)B (but name also used for 
other species like 
Gymnogongnts ). 






AhnfeOia concinrw J. Ag- 


eki'oki, ]jiuu 


Abbott 1996 


L2 


Gelatinizes on heating, used in stews or in imu. 










' aki'tiki, limu 


Gannon 


Interview 


Used in cursing. 










AK1ULA 


Doty 


1 


(Chant certain) 










AKOAKOA 


Doty 


1 


Coral or all jointed corals 










ako'ako'a 


Setchell 


97 


CotaJ, homed coral in particular, and one or all jointed coralline lima 










AKUILA 


Doty 


1 










Cfiylociodta rigens (Ag.) J. Ag. 


akuilg 


Pukui 


16 


Sfltne OS KIHE, ft red seaweed. 


kibe 






Cbyiodadio sp- 


akuMsJimu 


Reed 


tf 




hmukibe 






Chyloplp/Hp rigens? (Ag.)J.Ag. 


akuila, limu 


Chamberlain 


>2 












akuila, limn 


MacCaufthey 
1917 


152 


An edible species. 


limukihe 






Cfiyfocladia rigens (Ag.)J. Ag, 


ALAALAULA 


Doty 


1 










Codium Muellen K-uetzing 


alaalaula 


Henriqiies- 
Peittwdy 


tf3 












alaalaula 


Setchell 


97 










Perhaps Cadium sp 


aJaalaula, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 


Chamberlains list includes Andrew's Dictionary limu names aod names from 
other sources 










ALAM 


Doty 


1 


LIMU MAKE? (SctcheH) 








Dictyota$pp,:D.acu{iloba distorts J. Agardh,- 
n dichoioma (Huda.) Lamx. 



3§ 



3 

4 

IS 



■s g 

■31 



1 a . 
! h i 



1 

I 
3 



Q 5 



IS 

li 

i s 



IS il 

II 1 i 



s< 



1 1-1 J I 

SIS -g S 




i 



'§1 



Appendix Ar Lirau Database 
Paga £ out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


Aupupu 


Pukni 


33 


Same a& ma'opuna-a-ka-ITpoa, acfiiumon seaweed. 


mo' opima-a-ka-Upaa, moopunn 




same as - mataJoa, a shellfish, general name /or 
shellfish with long sharp edges (Tftflfj intermedia, 
Dfupa rnotwtl > Also aupupu; pupa awa. 


GiifflHsfasp. 


au-pupu, limu 


MacCaufh&y 
1917 


L54 




limn moo-pnna, linui ka-h'poa 






GriffitiisJa avuli s Harv.? 


aupupu, limu 


Oiambeilaiti 


32 












aupupu. limn 


Reed 


37 




lima moc-puna, limu ka-lipoa 






Griffithsiasp.? 


awaawa 


Hemiques- 
Peabody 


363 












awikiwiki 


Htnriques- 
Peabody 


363 












"AWlKl-WIKi 


Doty 


1 










GymfJOSPngnis; G. vermiculans americana J r 
Ag.,- G, dixiplinalis (Bory) J. Ag. 


■awikiwiki 


Pukni 


35 


Same ask&'ele'ek: 


kp ele'ek 




vise, Cauavalia 


f/}ffTUM,gOTn>ruJ 


awLki>wLki,limu 


MacCaughty 


L50 




limu ua-ua*loli, limu ekaaa-kaha, 
limu ko-ele-ele, limu net 






Gynvjogongrus vemicularis, G. americana, G. 
t&sciptinwis (Bory) J. Ag. 


awikiwiki, Limu 


Heed 


37 


Dsed in love-making charms 'in ancient days. 


limu uaualoli, limu ekobaekaba, 
iima koclcele or koele. limu nei 






Gymnogongnts vetmicidoris americana I. Ag., 
Gymmjgpngtuf ditnplinalis J, Ag. 


ehau 


Setchell 


&7 












ehau, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












ekaha 


Scichcll 


97 








parasitical plant and fern-lite plain 


Halimtda spp. 


EKAHA 


Doty 


1 










Hai>meda 


EKAHAEKAHA 


Doty 


2 










Gymnogongnts verwicu/arls amercana J. 
Agardh, <j. discipUnaiis (Bory) I. Agardh 


ekahatkaha, Emu 


Reed 


87 




limu uaaeloii, linLu kOeleelt at 
koelc, limu awikiwiki. limu nei 






Gymnogongnts venmcularis americana J, Ag., 
Gymnogongrvjf diciplinafis J. Ag. 


Ekahakaha 


Abbott 1947 


204 










Getfdum 



Appendix A: X,imu Database 
Cage 6 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


FAG£ 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SOARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


ekahakaha 


StwheU 


98 


Maui name for Hawai'i" 5 akiaki and koeleele 










GKAHAKAKA 


Dot>- 


2 


(Maui) 




akiaki (Hawai'i); toelccle 
(Hawai'i; exCaamberLain 
fide SetcheLI) 




GeUttium fikcinum Bory^G, pusHtum: 
?AJmfetito conetnna J. As.:Ge!ith'um: 
Gyrrmogongtus 


'ckahakqka 


Pvkvi 


39 


Var. name ftw Lima luloa and limu uaua loli. 


Ijrau loloa, limu uaua loll 


Iubu loLoa, limu uaua luli 


juvthiJe or small birds nest fern fetaha) 




ekaha-fcaha. Limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


ISO 




limu ua-ua-loli, limii ko-ele-ele, 
Limu awiki-wiki, limu nei 






G\.iiinagtittgrus vermtcuiaris,, G, ameticCtfta ; G, 
dsscipUnaris (Bory) J. Ag. 


ekahfl-kaha, Limu 


MacCHuglley 
1917 


L50 




limu loloa 






Gelidium afiemi&funt, G corn&um, G.felicinum 
Boxy. G, intricatum {J. Agardh) Kuetz. G. 
{(Uijbiiwn Born., G cartiJ^imum (L.) Gaill.. <ji 
pxu'MutH (St&ciih.} Le Sah 


efcaftataha, limu 


Rest 


87 


Sometimes pounded and mixed with Limpets and sometimes cooked with chili 
peppers and salt 


limn Loloa 






Geti&umfrficimim? Bory 


ekahakuha, litau 


Nest 












Gelidium 


eksliakah*, Ikmt 


Cbambertaia 


32 












cleau 


SettheLL 


98 


Found at low tide jusi abova the water One to two feet long, and is used as a 
substitute for banana leaves when cooking pig in ""stive fashion.™ Only the parts 
of limu that are smeared on the pig are eaten. 










eleau, limu 


Reed 


86 




Hmuakiaki 






Ahnfeidtia cancinna J. Agardb 


eleau, limu 


MacCaagbey 
1917 


150 




mntraii-aii 






Ahnfefdt/a ca/xifata J. Aganflr 


eleele 


Setchell 


9S 


This limu is always prefixed with the term "limu, 7 ' (Many other limu are referred 
to by using only the special designation), fresh water type lasts (wo days, salt 
wafer laste a wed. 

Slippery and fragrant, can be studied from a distance (PuaJsoolau, MoJoka'i), 










eleele 


Simpson 














ele-ele, Limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


139 


Easily gathered, considered edible by the natives. Among the most abundant, mo 
lopular, and most -widely used of all tat edible aigac. 








EnMwtnorptta flexuaso (Wulfen) J. Agardb t£. 
ffaplrirfcii J. Agardhi E. intestimtlis {Linnaeus) 
Link. E. Unza (LhuiBeus) J. Agardh F,. plumosn 
{Mullet) J. Agardh E. prolifaa (MwLLerJ I 
Agardb. £ tubulosa Kuetz., £ compressa (L.) 
Gtcv. 



Appendix A; Linw Database 
Parja 7 out t>£ 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAME5 


LATIN NAMES 


ele-ele, liluu 


MacCaughey 
1916 


476 


"the Mack or dark limn" 








F.nlertittMrphafiexuasa (Wulfea)l. Agarda 


eleele, limu 


N«i1 












Enteromorpha 


eleele, lirau 


Reed 


B6.87 


Grow near tne shore. Musi always be floated or dipped out of the water iota pails 
because it always grows at she mouth of streams in the quiet brackish water, so is 
full of silt or sand. Dropped into hntaoup or gravy asitisabouttabeserved. 

Soaked and washed in. fresh water, slightly sailed, and sensed tuicoofccd with poi 
and fish or meats. Sometimes it is ripened by soaking fer twenty *fbur hours or 
more until it becomes yellowish, slimy, and developed a rank odor. 

Dried and put on boils o* sometimes used fresh and moist to poultice boils. 
Founded wifli limu palawai and salt and tied on cuts and bruises. 


limu pipilani 






Enlermarpha fleiwva (WuJfcn) J. Agardh E 
HopklrkH J. Agardh.. E. intesliywtis {Linnaeus) 
Link ■£'■ fr"Bn (Linnaeus) J. Agardh. E. plumosa 
(Muller) J. Agordh. E . proltfera (Muller) J. 
Agardh,F. lubuJosa Kuelz-.E, compressa (L.) 
Grev. 


eleele. limit 


Miller 












Enteromorpha 


ELE-'ELE 


Doty 


2 










Enteromorpha compressa (L) Grew, £. 
ituesiinuiis (Linnaeus) Link 


ELEAU 


Doty 


2 










AhnfeUia concinna J. Ag. 


"tlcfltl 


Pukui 


40 


Pethapa same as aki'aki, a seaweed. Maui 


'akVaJd 






Aknftftia concinno J. Ag r 


'ele'ele 


AhQuin 


Interview 


Mullet eat the young 'efe'ele. Awa kalamoho eai the long limu. Laniakea's kau is 
July - August 










'ele'ele 


Magnider 


27 










Hrfleromorpha sp. 


■eleele 


Pukui 


4fl 


Long, filamentous, green, edible seaweeds gmeromarpha praUfera >. Some 
kinds ace among the most popular in Hawaii, being eaten raw as condiments at 
feasts. Called ptpHaoi on. Maui. 


prpna&i (Maui) 




cooking banana variety, taro, sugar cane, sweet 
potato 


EnteromorpfKi proltfera (Muller) J. Agardh 


'ele'ele, ILimi 


Kaina 


Interview 


Abo limu Lauoho. 


limulauoho 








ele cle, limu 


KaaLakea 


Audio 


If there is fresh water, g«. If there is no fresh water; no limu "ele'eie. 










'ele'ele, Limu 


AbbonlTO6 


13, L7 


Cleaned in salt water, then in fresh water and soaked overnight Add salt. 


buiu'RjD 






Etiteromorphaproiifera (Muller) J. Agardh £ 
Spp. except coarse large ones, 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 8 out of S3 



LEMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATIONS 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


'ele tie, lima 


Ewalifcn 


Audio 


W/quflEt, limn ele'ete, ho okoma i toko o ka stew meat. Na kau o ka limn, elua 
tnanow^ o ka mihkahiti, puka mai Mia limu. When ua, wash all the dirt, pan La 
lepp, r Inilfl nlii mai Vm limu, ma'iMt. HukLrae ka lima a ho'ama'ema'e 

Lulii ka hana 'ana. Ala a mike, 'ono. 'A'nle 'aia ka limu i kcia mau la\ nui na me 
Dkekahawaiehulonei. 1 pule ka waiho ana j lotto oka 'fimoiemakapahuhau. 
Have to freeze it after. UUuli, "'■out kapololei. Palamainta hope (hakeskea mai). 

'Otakukaulhilimamuaolcapala. 'Okameahoukiiiiicapakopoko. MaKahaia 
Hilton, 










'ele'ele, limn 


Kauahipaula 


Video: 
*AM 


fce kan ka limu 'ele'ele, loloa 










ele'ele. hmu 


Gannon 


Interview 


This limu likes lo grow wliere- there is some flow in the waier (fresh). YducoJJac 
it by pinching a little at a time so itdoesnt get sandy. 










ele'ele, limn 


Aiona 


Interview 


My dad laid me about his mother picking ele'ele and that when they went to pic 
It, they needed to do it VERY carefully So ito sand would be mixed in with it. Sht 
would give them lickings if it weie sandy - 










ele'ele, limit 


Howard 


Interview 


She picks up this limu ai Punalu'u Beach, paving on the rocks and in lie sand a 
the intertidal area (where the freshwater springs are). 








Enreromoffrfmpralifera (Muller) J. Agardh 


eleele maoii 


Henriques* 
Peabody 


863 












cloclo 


Henriques- 
Peabody 


S6J 












ehtla 


Henriques- 
Peabody 


863 












encnueJimu 


Die pi 


Interview 


Red with, leaves, skinny on bottom and branching on top, smooth. Also called 
turtle limu 










General Limn 


Haajrio 


Audio 


'A'nle tiui tea i kSia manawa. KiSpuhi kahakai, lepo. Ma mna, kapu kahakai. 
Vote kAputu 'is. Ms Otoe he wafai noka 'sa'au, 'a'olc 'au'au nwiu 'anp wahi 
like Njle. 










General Limu 


Ellis 


Video: 
■AM 


Remembers eating "■ ele'ele, lipua, llpe epe'e, limu wawae'iole. 










General Lima 




Vidm: 
'AM 


A list is prepared of limu: limu kahu, limu Upoa, limu "■ ele'ele, limu manauea, 
limu ka In, limu lipe epe'e, limu wawae'iole, limu hnhUmluwaenn, limu 'apihi. 










General Limu 


Kaanana 


Vidm: 
AM 


'Aka i ka limu. 










General Limn 


Serrano 


Video: 
'AM 


Remembers earing kohu. 'ele'ele, manauea, Upoa, tipe'epe'e. IFyou huki the Limi 
:t will be gone, ohiliniu is die correct way. Lrpoa is eaten wifliGsh,irpe'epe'e is 
salted and eaten with pci or 'opelo. These days there isn't limn like before. 











Appendix A: Limu Database 
Pago 9 out of 59 



UMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


General Liitiu 


Kainn 


mfernew 


Maka'alae is the main spot for limu in Hana. Haaa does not have certain, linui lik 
Lahaiua side Ida buluhulawaena, ogo, etc. Those types of linm like duty water, 
where Ji&ra has clean water. 

Lots of rain makes die limu grow long. The ' Qpu of the: eneniic has limu that you 
can rinse and cat with poke. 










General Limu 


Keohokalole 


Video: 
'AM 


"Chi limu ke ma'ema'e ke kai. Kai nui, nui ka Jepo. Nui ka Limu ma K&ne'ohe. 
Remembers 'ele'ele and hiduhnluwaem 










General Limn 


AhQuin 


Interview 


Manawea, waiwaienle, li peepee, kohu, lipna, huld hulu waina, niaoeo uen, 
owaka waka, fcala, opihi (2 types), node, ribbon. Kan - season thereof. Kihei - 
Garden of Eden. Turtle feed, from July to September at Kawailoa, O'ahu. 

Pollution and overharvestinB changed the limn. His kumu was mostly Helen 
Hb'opi'i Kenfllio - "Lwu Lady of MailT - Kihei. Foreign finnr is tefcurgoxer tire 
r^efs. When gutting fish, you can observe the types of limu that fish eat. 










General limu 


Kaalakea 


Audio 


Kopekope i ka limu a hana po'opa'o. Oko'a ka limu i kfta nunawa. 










HANA 


Doiy 


2 










HypneQ ctrmotcr {Mert.) J. Agarda 


hana, limu 


MacCBugbxy 
1917 


151 


Ajuong the moss commonly eaten of die Hawaiian seaweeds. Especially relishec 
when boiled with octopus. 








Hypnm armala {Men.) J. Agerdh 


HAULA 


Doty 


2 


(Very inre. Maui) 








Niiopkyilim? 


hu'ula 


Pukui 


61 


See lima hfl'ula. 




Limit ha'ula 






haula. linm 


Reed 


88 


Very rare, only nne smaJI specntien obtained from a native on Maui. 








Nitophvllw? 


tia'ufa, limu 


Pukui 


207 


a red seaweed fyiarteiviicifragtiis ). 








Kfarten&iafiagilis Harvey 


ha'utelani 


Pukui 


61 


A frtsh-waier alga found in taio patches. 










hauJelani, limu 


(teed 


67 


Found in the cool, swift mountain streams or pools. 










HAW ANTE 


Doty 


2 










Fotysiphania mollis Hooker et Harvey ex Harvey 
1847, Strvblocladia? 


haw arte 


Pukui 


62 


A small, fine, red seaweed ^ofysiphonia spp. ), consisting of branding filaments 
forming dense tufts. 






Hut of the louia, considered delicious lo eat. Also Uw 
tree itself. 


Pofysfphania spp. 


hflwane, limu 


Reed 


88 










Strebdncfahci? 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 10 out of 5& 



LTMV NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHAftEDHAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


hawanc. limu 


Reed 


88 




lurw pnalu 






Pofysiphtmia mollis Hooker et Hajvey ex HarvCy 
1847 


haw*ire. timu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


154 




litnu pu-aJu 






Polysipharua mollis Hooker et Harvey ex Han 1 *) 
1847 


hineke* 


Haanio 


Audio 


Unra karoa'flUifl o Kona. UJupalahamakapohakupflboctioe. Kopekopemeka 
pall, tu'L ikahfllo. LUnults.ikElS.Viile Vpa'a likemekalijpe'epe'fc..."" 'A'ala 
'ono. 










hinauia 


Se-tehe-ll 


98 












hJEaula 


ETasnio 


Audio 


Limu kaiaa'Hin&o Kona. Ulupalahamaltapohnirupabcehoe.Kopekop* mtfca 
paii, fail l ka hale LimnkiiikfilS. Vole 'aipa'a lilccmckaUpc'cpe'e..." 'A'ala 
'ono. 










tanwda 


Hcoriqaes- 
Peabody 


863 












HINA'ULA 


Daly 


2 


[Chamberlain) 










hma'ulB 


Pukuj 


71 


■Maud of seaweed. 










hinnula, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












holnawai, limu 


Pukui 


207 


A freshwater moss. 










HOL0M0KU 


Doty 


2 


(Chamberlain) 










holomoku 


Setchell 


99 












lioldmokii, limu 


Chamberlain. 


J2 












HONA 


Dofy 


2 










Ffypnea niffifica J.Agflrdh 


hona 


Seaihell 


99 




Swiukuna 






ffyprtea /jidifica I h Agardh 


honH (limu bonu}, 
lima 


Abbott 1996 


11 


Limu kala is known 10 be eaten by turtles, probably accounting for the name- linu 
hqnjL 


limu kala 






Sargassum spp- 


hoonunu 


Setchell 


99 

. ... 










Laurencla obtusa var. racemoia (Huds.) Lamx. 



Appendix A: Limu Databa** 
Page 11 out of 59 



UMC NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


HQ'QNUNU 


Doty 


2 


(Puna, Hawni'i) 








iaarencia abtuso var. racemosa (Hilda.) Lamx. 


lm'onunu 


Pukui 


273 


A seaweed (frmrencia obtusa var. racemose ). Cf. Upe'e. 








Lowencia obtusa var. racvmasa (Hud? ) Lamx. 


huahuakai 


Setchell 


99 












hu'ahn'akai 


Pukui 


84 


A variety of seaweed. 










HUAHUAKAI 


Doty 


2 


sponge (ex Chamberlain fid? Setehell) 










huahuufcai, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












Jiiiai, huwai 


Pukui 


34 


A kind of seaweed Cottium ) r 






Asbelifish of the hlhiwai family 


C.odium 


HULU 


Doty 


2 










Ceramiwu clavutdutft Agardh; Cetitrveerw 
clavulaluBf (C. Agardh) Montague 


huhi 


Pukui 


90 


Same as hulu Hio, nahawele, pGhuhihulu, a sawnd 


hulu 'ilio, nahawelt, pOhuluhulu 








hulu, Limu 


MacCaughcy 
191? 


L34 




Lima hulu -ilia, limu hulu wawae- 
kile 






Gemmum clavulotum Agardh 


hulu, limu 


Reed 


36 




limu huluilio. Limu hulu wawae- 
rtjle 






Ceniroceras ckmilotum (C. Agardh) Montagnc 


hulullulu 


Pukui 


90 


Kinds of seaweeds and mosses. 










hglululu-a-'ioLe 


Pukpi 


90 


Same as hulu 'iota. 


hulu 'tab 








hululmhjwa^ia 


Pvkui 


90 


An irregularly branching, dark-red seaweed Qraieioupia fiheina ) with many 
narrow segments, ft is commonly eaten and is sold in seme marittts. Also pakele- 
wa'a r 


pakele-a-wa'a 








HULUHULUWAEN 
A 


Doty 


2 


(allbuiKaua'i) 








Gmieloupiafifictna (Lamoroux) C. Agardh 


Huluhuluwaena 


Abbott 1947 


206 


(Hawaii) 








Gra/efottpia 


huluhuluwaena 


Magrudei 


73 










GroKiaupiafiiicina (Lotiotoux} C- Agardh 



Appendix A: Limu Dafcftbaao 
Faga 12 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONVMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


huluhuhiwaena 


AhQuin 


Interview 


Wrthakt.Wida squid 










hpJuhuluwaena, 


Eaalftlrftft 


Audio 


Mixed with ake. 










huluhuluwaena 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


Ma Xahala Hihoo. UKi pu me ka limu uliuLi. Ho'ohui ' ia me ke ake. L kajani 
hulnluiluwaena, 3 kakmi ak*. 'UUf nla keia Limu. 










hwluhuiuwaena 


Kama 


Interview 


Mimd withal*. 










hi&ihuluwaem 


Setehril 


93, 95, 99 


Hatr-likc limu. Eaten with opihi in Kilo. 


Pakaeleawoa (Maui) 






Grateloupiafilicwa {LamonSu?i)C. Agardh 


hutuhuluwapm 


Carman 


Interview 


Gtphs db coral Hw grandmother was rie "ate person" ofhertime-she was 
fanwis for making the huluhuluwaena with, eke (raw beef liver) for everyone. 
Then her mother {Amuy Edifr) became the "akc person" 










huhi-hulu-waenfl, 
littiu 


MacCoughey 
1917 


154 


Thia name is used on Hawai'i. Both names are used on the intermediate islands. 


limu paka-ele-awa'u 






Grafctoupiajtlicina (Lamoraux) C. Agwdh 


huhihulnwHenaj limu 


Ncul 












Graieloupia/flfcina (Lamouroux)C. Agardh 


hqluh^iluwaena, limu 


Abbott 1996 


9= 13, 25 


CLeaaed in salt water, then in iresb. water and chopped. Add salt. Transplanted 
fmtn HraiDtawfii Labaina Maui {E Williamson) ™ by Mis. 5am Mowlein from 
MololaitoWaikHcifbr Uliuukalani. 

Brought to Waikikl Tor r.iii'u from either Honokow&i, Mawi or Mnloka'i. 


pakefea»s'a (Maui and. 
Molc-ka 1 i>, ake limn (must 
common used with al«). 






Gr&teJoupiajiUcitw (LamourouxfC. Agardh 


huluhuluwaeua, Limu 


feed 


87 


This name is in very general use on Hawaii and Maui v but both names are 
common (mOahu. Crow near me shore. 


limu pakflcleawBfl 






GrateloupiflJHicifxr {Lainounjux) C. Agardh 


buluhuluwaena, Limu 


Howard 


[ftterview 


Picks up this limu at Punalu u Beach (Hawai i) growing in the shallow area in mi 
sand (where Ihe^t ia fresh waief springs under ground), 






Gra 


Gmteloupiajihana {Laroouroux) C. Agardh 


huhjhuhi wahuie 


Ifenriques* 
Feabody 


B63 












hiihi i'i 


Henriquea* 
Peabody 


863 












hulu 'i'i 


Putiii 


SK> 


A kind of seaweed. 










huhj-ilk> 


Bryan 












Cktdophara 


buhi-ilio 


Bryan 












Ectocarpus 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Paga 13 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


HULU-ILIO 


Doty 


2 










Ciadophora nilida K«ela. or Chaeiomorphu 
anieimina (Bory) Kittzmg. Junta, mhens; 
Stigeoctonivm amoenjfm K.netz.\ CertfroceraS 
ctovufatmn (C. Aeanfli) Montague- Ectocarpvs 
spp. ; Ceratrtium davutaium Agaidh; 
EctocuFpus indicus Sgndei 


hulu ilio 


Henriques- 
Pea body 


863 












iuhi'ilio 


Pukui 


90 


A fine, unbundled, green seaweed Gtwetomorphn antermina ). looking much 
Jike Clsdophoranitida, Also 'Ilio, nahtwele. 




Also "ilio, nahawele 




OuKtomorpha antermina (Bory) Kutzing 


huhi 'Dio 


Pukui 


90 


A fine, nonedibk, brown seaweed fiphaceiaria irfbufotdes \ densely tufted, 
shorter and darker brown than Etiocarpus 








Sphavelaria rribuloides 


buhl 'Oio 


Pukui 


90 


Some kinds offoSysiphonia seaweeds 








Pofysiphom'a 


buJu'Oio 


Pukui 


90 


A fine, feathery, green, fresh-water tH%a.(tigpQc!ot}{u/tt amoenum \ found in 
streams and ditches; said to be edible 








SligeoL-loniwn amoenum Kuetz. 


huhi'flia 


Pukui 


90 


A fine, ted seaweed £znfrvceras clavuUtium ), fatming short, dense, regularly 
branching tufts, with tiny forked dps; not edible. Also huln, puhuluhulu, 
wSwae^iole. Lit,, dog fiir 




AU(i hulu, puhuhihuln, 
wiwae'iok 




Cenfrocerag clavulQltatt (C, Aganjh) Montagne 


htr/u 'Am 


Pwfctw 


P0 


Fine, branching, edible brown seaweeds $ciocarpus spp. ), fanning short, olivfl- 
browii chimps 








EcffxarpaS Spp. 


hulu 'Ttio 


Pukui 


90 


A fine, branching, green seaweed Qadaphara ru'tido ), forming flexible, long, 
bright-green tufts; said to be edible 








Cfachphwa nUitJa Kuctz. 


huluilio 


Setchel) 


99 










Janiambens 


hulu-iJio, limu 


MacCsughey 
1917 


141 


This end several other species are used locally by the natives for food, chiefly on 
Maui and Haw&i i. 


limu ilio, limurrumu 






Cfadophora cmterwina (Bory) Kuetz. 


hulu-ilio, limu 


MecCayghey 
1917 


141 


Sometimes used for food. 








Cfadophora nitida Kuetz. 


bulu-ilio, limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


14.S 




limuaka-akoa 






Ectocarpus Inihcus Sonder 


hulu-ilio, limu 


MacCawghey 
19J7 


139 


Grows in brackish ponds by the sea; eaten by only a feu- natives, a cosmopolitan 
of spec it 8 with mjuiy varieties. 








Sltgeoclonlum atnoemw Kuetz. 


hulu-ilio, limu 


MatCaugbey 
1917 


154 




imu hulu, limu huhi wawae-iole 






Ceromaan dominium Agardh 


hulu' ilio 


Magmder 


45 










GiffariSa breviarticufata 



Appendix A: Limu Ditibase 
Page 14 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


huluilio 


Gannon 


Interview 


This limu is soft like wool (recognized from picture in Magruder book). 










huluilio, limu 


Neal 












Eciocarpus 


hutuilio, limn 


Reed 


86 


Not widely used, only local on several islands, chief]}' on. Hawaii and Mmii h add 
this name is applied to seveial species slightly resembling each other, ft means 
tog's hair. Giow near the shore. 


limu hplu, limu hulu wawae-iole 






Ctnimceras clavuialum (C. Agardh) Mamagne 


huluilio, limu 


Reed 


86 


Grow near the shore. 


limu ilio. limu mann 






ChvelOiBorpko antenmna (Bon>) Kist»jng 


huluilio, limu 


Reed 


86 


Grow near die shore. 


limu akaakoa 






Ectocarpus iruftatx? Sander. Efrtaear{tux sp. ? 


huluilio. limu 


R«d 


S3 


This grows in brackish water pools by die sea and is eaten by only b few 
Hawaiians. Grow near the shore. 








Sttgew ionium sp.? 


huhuLio. limu 


Reed 


86 










Cladophoro nitida Kuetz. 


huhiilio. limn 


Chamberlain 


n 












hulu ntanu 


Pukui 


90 


Green seaweeds fpavlerpa $pp. ), growing lite land plants, with roots, prostrate 
stems, and leaflifc* divided fronds; not edible. Af&o aj'-a-ta-ooniL. hutu moo, 
Kmoa. 




'ai-a-ka-hnnu. huh) moa, 
duoa 




Caufcrpti 3PP- 


huhi n»a 


Pukui 


90 


Same as hulu mann. 


hulu mann 








hulu pua'a 


Pukui 


90 


A ana IL matted red seaweed QpyridiazpineHa), its many branches covered with 
short bristles. It israihei common in shallow water near shore. ItiseatenLnSovtl 
Hawaii, but not generally «UewheTC. 








Spyn&tl Sfn'ntlla 


HULUPUA'A 


Doty 


3 


(5, Hawaii) 








Spyridto spine/la 


hulupiiaa. limu 


Rccd 


B8 


Not In general use, but eaten ir^the Kouthern part of Hawaii. 








Spfridiasptoelia 


HULUWAWAE- 
IOLE 


Doty 


3 


(Reed) 








Centracvras cinvaiattm (C. Agardh) Montagne 


hula wawae-iole. linn, 


MacCaughey 
1917 


154 




liiitu hulu-ilio, limu hulu 






Ceraitfiiim clavulatum Agardh 


hulu wawae-iole. limti 


Reed 


86 




limu huluilio, limu hulu 






C^ntrotvras ctavufatum (C. Agardh) Montagne 


HUNA 


Doty 


3 


(Konfl, Oahu > Kauai, Molokai) 








Hypneo ormolu (Men) )> A.gpidh,fiypnea 
nitftflca J. Agardh 



Appendix A; Ijjmj Database 
Page 15 out of 59 



LIMIT NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


huna 


Ma grader 


79 










Hypnea cervicorttisS. Ajardh 


huna 


Bryan 




(fee Oabu, Kauai, Molokai) 








ffypneo - 


huna 


PuJniL 


91 


Common, fine, red seaweeds ffypneaspp.}, irregularly and mere or less densely 
branching, thorny looking; eaten cooked, furnishes a good colloid when boiled. 








Hypnea spp, 


huna 


Seichel! 


100 


Stewed with meat. 


liimj huna 






Hypnea nidtjtca J. Agardh 


huna 


G aim mi 


Interview 


Dwsn"! eat this type pf limu (recognized from picture in Magruder book). 










huna, limu 


Neal 












Hypnea 


huna. limu 


MacCaughey 
1916 


476 


'^the wnce*Ud or hidden limu" 








Hypnea sp. 


huna, limb 


Chamberlain 


12 












huna, Jin>a 


AHwnJMfi 


12 


Gelatinizes on Icatrog. used in stews or in imu. 










hiuui, limu 


Reed 


87 


Found drifted on sand or rocks. Grow near the shore. Occasionally cooked biimc 
when theR whs famine of war and tare and sweet potatoes were scarce. 

Cooked with boiled meals long enough fijr the gelatin to be softened or dissolved 
Especially prized for boiling with squid or octopus. Sometimes boiled and me ho 
infusion given for stomach ache. 








Hypnea nittifica J. Ag&dh, Hypma onrtota 
(Men.) J, Agardh 


HUNE 


Doty 


3 










Hypnea ttidifica J. Agardli 


hune 


Sclthell 


100 












hune, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












HUNEHUNE 


Doty 


3 


(Chamberlain) 










hune hune 


Seuhtll 


100 












hunehuM 


PuVmi 


91 


Same as huna, a seaweed. 


iwui 






Hypnea spp. 



Appan.di.Jt A: Liiuu Database 
Page 16 out of 59 



UMUNAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


hunehune, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












h&pekohoia 


Pwlaii 


92 


A variety of seaweed. 










huwas 


Sctehcll 


100 


Perhaps spelled buwai. Expanded species ofCodtum 


huwai? 






Codium spongiosum Harvey 


HUWAI 


Doiy 


3 










Cotton spongiosum Harvey 


IHAU 


Doty 


1 


(Cbamberkin) 










i'i 


Hesutques- 
Pesbody 


tf3 












iliau 


Kaiim 


Interview 


Lawalu or boiled and then Ted to the ejienue. It gives mem diarrhea. Come back 1 
2 days Inter and hwk them with the same litnu bed. to the hook. Also gives pig 
diarrhea, [fin the sun, turns yellow. 










UiO 


Bryan 












Ciadophora 


il jo. LLmu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


141 




limn hulu'ilio, limu maim 






Cfadopftotv OitHftJtinu (Bory) Kuctz. 


UJD, lullU. 


Reed 


at. 




limu LiuluUio, Limu nianu 






ChaetOmOrpfia iXrtfennifKt ( Btfry) Kvtzing 


ILlO 


Doty 


3 










Chtxtomorphe arttetmma (Bory)K.utzing; 
Chtdophora 


UiO 


Pukui 


99 


A seaweed, same as some of thehulu Tlio 5 Qtaetomorpha antenmna ) 


hulu 'ilia 






Chaetomorpha arjiennina (Bory) Ktltzing 


IL10HA 


Doty 


3 


Prqb&bly = DJOHAA. 








Utva 


ilioha 


Sets bell 


LOO 


Species of linrn with broad leaves, he limu lau paLahalaha 








Probably Viva sp. 


'Tlioha'a 


Pukui 


99 


Same as fipafiapafia, pafiapaha, sea lettuce (T/iVa and related (jeoeia) 


Lfpahapaha, pabapaha. sea lettuce 
(Utva and related genera) 






UAm and related genera 


iliohaa, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












KA KANAKA 


Doty 


3 


or KA-itANAKA'O.rvIANU' AKEPA (Hanalei, Kaua'i) 











Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 17 out of 5& 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PACE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


ka-kanaka, limu 


Pukui 


207 


A soft, sometimes gelatinous blue-green alga.(\ r osroc commune ) sometimes 
covering the. ground in the wet season as amalE slippery halls, especially at 
Hanalei, Kaua'i. 

Also limu ka-kanaka ■o-Manu'akepa, Lit t man -striking moas, so called because 
peaplt are said to slip on it and fall. 




Also limp fcjl-kanakg-o* 
Manp'akcpa 






KAHAKALA 


Doty 


3 


(Chamberlain) 










kahakala 


Setcheli 


100 












kahokala, limu 


Chamberiak 


32 












kahili 


Pukui 


112 


A seaweed, probably Turbinwta vmata . 








Turbirxrrip omata (Turner) J. Agardh 


kahili 


GarmoD 


Interview 


This is the realty tough limn that kwks like a kahili (furbinaria omnia ). 








Turhinaria ornate (Turner) J. Agardh 


KALA 


Doty 


3 










Sargasswn Spp.; Sarg&ssvm echinocarpum J, 
ABardh." Sargtssum rymosum Agardh; 
Sargassum pofyphyllwn J. Agardh, Turbiwma 


kala 


AhQuin 


Interview 


Enenue feed on kala, ribbon, ete- 










kaJa 


Magruder 


51,33 










Sargassum echinocarpum J. Agardh & 
obaisffaiium J. Agardh, S. pofyphyUum I, 
A^rdh 


kala 


Pukui 


L20 


See limu kala, seaweeds For a pun on kala (plan! and limu) bw Ncal 367. 




limu kala 


SurBeanfish, unieorn fish, Teuthid&e^ same as pint 
kala, prickly poppy; sweet potato, qualified with 
ke'okeaaadpoiu; same as ikala; same as 
pakalakala, a tern 




kala 


Bryan 












Sar%assum 


kala 


Selchell 


100 


Ahvpys prefixed by the word Limu. Ceremonial use of purification. Some say ft is 
eaten, others disagrw. 








largasswn zchinacarpum J. A&artih. 
Turbfnarfa onvtfa: (Turner) J. Agardh 


kala 


Simpson 














kala. limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


147 


Am used for food (by natives). 








Sargossum obntsifoiiwi J. Agardh £ 
lolyphyiiwn J. Agardl, & densum Dickie^ S, 
irvtsum Dickie, S echini/corpum J. Agardh. £ 
cymosum Ag. 



<< -I 






£>1 

3 I 



11 
Ij 



'= i i 



I* 

U 



S'i * 
Mi. 



li 



St ■ 

Hi 



a -e 
li 

li 

•S3 




II 

1! 






SI 



II 

"8 3 



Appendix A: Limu Databaa* 
Page 19 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFOftMATTON 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATLN NAMES 


kala. limu 


Abbott 1996 


23 


Enten by palani, enenue. kala. Used for bait. Two type* - kaLa-lannui, tals-lauli'i 


limu honu 






SargossUM echittQcarpwn J. AEardh 


kala. Limu 


Gannon 


Interview 


Never ate limu kala, it was used ceremonially. 










kala, limu 


KdamiEift 


lnwiYww 


According to the old stories, thekQltini (the chiefs fastest runners) would use lint 
kala to wrap living fish, ihat the thief desired and bring item long distances to the 
chief (and it would still be- living. 










kala, limu 


Howard 


Interview 


She doesn't eal this one, 








Sorgassum echimeorpvm J.Agardh 


kala wai 


Pukui 


122 


See Limu kala wai. 




See limu tab wai 






kala wai, limu 


Pukui 


207 


One cf more kinds of iarit green, slippery Fresh-water algae fusualhajwnsvra 
spp. ) oonsisdng of rows of cylindrical cells in unbranched filaments, common to 
rresh- water rivulets, dripping places, and &ro patches. Also pHawai. 




Also paJa wai 




Spiwgyra spp. 


KALA-LAU-irfLl'I 


Doty 


3 


(Chamberlain fide Setchell) 










kalalauliUii 


Strcbxll 


101 












kaLalauliuiL, Ihuu 


Chamberlain 


32 












KALALAUMtHNUI 


Daty 


3 


Probably » to KALA-LAU-NUtorNUNUl. NUTNU1 is pidgin 








Sargasswn tchinocarpum J. Agardn 


kalalaunuinui 


Setchell 


101 












katalaunmaui. limu 


Chamberlain 


31 












KALAWAl 


Doty 


3 


(a flowering plant) 








Naif major 


kalawai, limu 


Reed 


76 


Often called fresh-water Jiatu tain. Used as a tove potion by saying a magic spell 
learned from a kahuna, eating the limu and givine soma to the desired pason. 










kanalDa, limu 


Kapehulehua 


Interview 


A type of edible hmu- 










KAUPOA 


Day 


3 










Griffithwaewilis Harv.? , 


ba-lipoa, littiu 


Neal 












Griffithsia 



Appendix A; Limu Database 
Page 20 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


ka-lipoo, limu 


Reed 


67 


This alga is considered. a delicacy en Maui ami soutnerci Hawaii, but is ve/y $c&< 
and spoils very soon, so have not been able to secure enough to identify ibe 
species 


limu moopuna, Urnu aupupu 






Grtflllhstasp? 


k&-lipoa, limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


154 




Limu moo -puna, limu au-pupu 






ttriffithsia ovalis Harv.? 


KAU-PAU 


Doty 


3 










Cbrtowperafasiigatflpacificii J.Ag. 


kauna'aa 


Puboi 


13& 


A cc&s@. tough seaweed (iaiaxaura rugosa '), c&kified and inedible, resembling 
tauna'oa (puscvJa sandwichiano ) in being yellow to gold in odor. 


kauno'a, *okala 




native dodder, iliOlluSk (Vemwtidae) 


Gaiaxmra rugosa (Ellis et Solander) Lamonjnx 


kaunoa 


Setebell 


L02 








a worm feat causes universal withering of trees and 
herbs; dodder 


Galaxc/ura mgpsa l.Ellisct Solander) Lamonmx 


(CAUNOA 


Doty 


3 










ffifflltoHrftr rugosa (Ellis ef Srioctdfer j La/norou* 


kaunoa 


Pukui 


138 


A rough seaweed 0fl/fl*uwa /u#w<j ). Cf. pitalakala. 


flkala, kauruVoa 


Cf- pakalakala. 


native dodder, moHusk (Veimeiidae) 


Grfaxaura rugosa (Ellis el Solander) Lamoroux 


kaupau 


Pukuj 


135 


An edible brown seaweed Qkntiaspora pacificn ), wish many slender branches. 
Also wa'wahiwa'a 


wawahrwa'a 


Also w&waiuWa 




Cfmoospora pacifica J.Agardh 


kau-pau, limu 


MacCaughey 
19L7 


148 




limuwfl.wahj-wa'a 






Chottosporafastigiaia pacifica J. AgardJl 


kpupflU, limu 


Reed 


86 




limu wawahiwan 






Cfinaosparafastigalapacijitti J. Ag. 


KEKUWELU 


Doiy 


3 


Probably - KE KUWELU 








Gtfidium spp? 


keknwelu, limu 


Reed 


87 




limu kuwelu 






Geiidium sp.? 


KELE 


Don' 


3 


(Charnkerlaiii) 










kclt 


Seichefl 


102 












kele, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












KIHE 


Doiy 


3 










Cttylocfa&G risens (Ag.) J. Ag. 


kihe 


tfenriques- 
Pcabody 


Bfi3 













Appendix A; Linw Database 
Page 21 out of 59 



LIMUMAME 


SOURCE 


FACE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SBJf^LSO 


SBAHED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


kite 


Pukui 


147 


A red seaweed ^hytodadin sp. ) will narrow cylindrical, branching stems. Also 
akuila. 


akuila 




A small native fern. QGphopterif stiffofdii ); a variety 
of sweet potato 


Chylocladia sp. 


kihe 


Haanio 


Audio 


' Aimeka'opM, i'amakfl, LJmukamB'fimaoKonB.Limufcaikcla.'a'olc ai 
pp'a litcraekalIpc'epe'e...'"A'ala'cno. 










Ww, Jimtf 


MacCaujEhey 
1917 


152 




limu akuila 






Chylocledia rigens (AjJJ.Ag. 


Idhe, linm 


Reed 


36 




limn akuila 






CfylochcHa tigens? (Ag.) J. Ag. 


KIKALA 


Doty 


3 


i 








Gwiirarmte clavutatum (C. Agardh) Mnjitagw 


lata la 


Setehell 


102 










CsnV&eerta eknvrfaliim (C. Agatdh) Mt>nta&ic 


KIKI 


Doty 


3 


(Chamberlain) 










kiki 


Setchell 


102 












Ldki 


Pufcui 


149 


A seaweed. 






A r>ird resembling a plover; name given a shellfish. 




fcitj, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












kimau 


Henriqucs- 
Peabody 


863 












KJPA-AKAl 


Doty 


3 


Probably - to L! PAAKAI 








Aspafflgopsis sanjbrdiona Harv. 


JCO'ELE 


CKrty 


3 


(R«4). SeeKOELEELE 










tfl'ele 


Pukui 


158 


SamsaaWtWdv- 


ko'ele'eie 




any variety of Lacge, tough 'opihi 


(jymnQguftgrus 


fca n *le 


He word 


Lnwrview 


Slie picks up this limuat&place «Ued laapapa 'ofcua (reef with nianini fish 
babies). This Lima is eaten with 'opihi. 


ko'elcele 






AhnJeftivpisiS flabelli/bnnis (Harvey) Magu£a 


kiVele, liitlu 


Ellia 


Video: 
'AM 


Uana. Uto me ka ha nke'ukfi. 










koele, limp 


MacCaughey 
19t6 


476 


"the dry or hard limu' 1 








Gymnogpngivs sp. 



Appendix A.: Lunu Database 
Page 22 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PACE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


koele, limn 


Reed 


87 




tunu UAuufoii, limu efcahaekaha, 
limu koeleele, limu awikiwiki, 
limunei 






GymnogongmsvemicularisanKricana 1. Ag. h 
Gym*K>gOngn£S diciplinalis (Bqty)J. Ag. 


koeleele 


Seteheit 


102 


Name used wilhoul term limu attached. Dwarfed and undeveloped form of 
tJ^wwjjWJgTW . May be an alternate name for akiaki 


akiaki 






Gym*v?%tmgni$ xp, 


koeleele 


Hturiques- 
Peabody 


863 












KO'ELEELE 


Dqly 


3 


See KOELE (Reed); sm AKIAKI 








GymftOgangrus; Gymnogongrus vcrmicularis 
americana J. Ag.; GynviOgangnis diseip/inolis 
(Bory) J. Ag. 


kfl'ele'ele 


Fukui 


158 


Small, red edible seaweeds fjyinagongrus sjp. ) [GvwuKjgongms? ] with rather 
thick, flattened stems and branches. 


kp'ele, net, Swikiwiki 


'awikiwiki, ■fkahakaha, 
ko'ele. Limu uaua loli, nei 




GymtrogOtigrvs 


fc^'df'eJe 


Howard 


Interview 


She picks up this limuata place called laopapa 'phu* (reefwith mgnini fish 
babies). This limu la eaten vti& 'opini. 


kfl'ete 






AhnfkfliBp&JffJabdlJforiTTijt (Harvey) MaBuda 


kn-eie-ele, lirtu 


MacCaugbey 
1917 


130 




limu ua-ua-Loli, limu ekaha-kaha, 
limu awiki-wiki, limu nei 






(jymhogongrusvermicularis. G. americana, G. 
discipfinatis (Bory) J. Ag. 


koeleele, limu 


ChnmbHlain 


32 












koekek, lime 


Reed 


87 




limu waal-oJi, limti ekahaskaha, 
koele, limu awikiwiki T limu nei 






{jymttf}gBr}gn& WftSifli, fay it a#)tftcaft& J. ft.g„ 
Gytnnagftngms diciplirtalis {Bory) J. Ag. 


KOHU 


Doty 


3 










Asparagopsfs sartfordiana Harv. 


kohu 


Ah Quin 


Interview 


Color and iodine depends on area gathered. Novetntet , April is kau, Red one ha 
tow iodine. 










koltn 


Ma grader 


59 










AsfiCu -agap&is taxi/amis (Delile) Treviaan 


Vohu 


SfiKbell 


LOO 


Always prefixed by the word limu, Kohu means to color or stain. "One year limu 


limu k<jkOj lipaakai (Maui) 






Asparagopsiz sanfordiana Harv. 


kobu 


Brian 












Asparagopsis sanfordiana Harv. 


kohu 


Miller 














kohu, limg 


Kaina 


Interview 


The best. Crisp, strong smell- Lots of rain makes limu crow , the kohu can get 
really long. 










kohu, Jinui 


Prapoe 


Video: 
TME 


Mo'omomi has (he best limu kohu. There are two ways to pick limu: cutting,, 
pulling but leaving the roots behind. 











Appendix A: Lirau Database 
Page 23 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


kohu. limu 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


XiuVQmoJe (quart), limu io-mi, Aia i waho loa keia limu, 'uk'uU. Was *ia ka me 
a pau a hc-'oku. i loko a ka wai pa'akai. I kskahj 1& belele'i tnai ka lepo a pau low 

Amaemo'e, "oki'ukiflk^p^^OM- Ke huki mfli 'oe, nemo pCj maim? me ke out, a 
Uwe "oe i kamea o lalo aia ta lurai i lima. '0 lain, aia i laila ke kumu 










kohu. limu 


Wong 


Interview 


About four days after it rains, you can go get the limu koha, This is the main Imu 
eaten on Ni'ihaU. 










kohu. limn 


Kauahipaula 


Video: 
'AM 


Huki ika lmiukohu r 










kohu. limu 


Reed 


ft 


This limu is usually called hmu kohu, except on Maui, Molokai, and Kauai, 11 is 
often called limu lipaakai and sometimes limu hpehu Limu koko is a corruption 
of kohu. Grow Far out on die tora! recti or on exposed rocks in the surf. 

Dropped into hot soup or gravy as it is about to be served. Always pounded well 
as its being cleaned to free it from adherirtg bits of coral, and also so that it may 
be soaked more thoroughly to remove the disagreeable bitter flavor, 

Sometimes mixed wiih inomana, Gonads of sea urchins are sometimes mixed: wit 
this Limu. 


limu lipaakai, hmu lipehu. limu 
koko 






Aspuragopsii sonfordicstn Harv 


kohu, limu 




Video: 
AM 


Ki 1 i 'ia i ka manawa kai malc-'o ma hope o ka ua nui. Ho'oku i loto o ka wai a ac 
ka p3, a Jaila e Ro'oma'ema'e a kfipi i la pa'akai. 










kohu. limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


L52 


It has a variety of Hawai'ian names, limu kohu being the most common. On Man 
Moloka'i, and Itaua'i it is often called limu lipa-skai, or limu lipehu. 


limu lipa-akai, limu lipehu 






Aspwagopsis Smfordiana Harv. 


Jajhu. limu 


HenriquBS' 
Peabody 


363 












kohu. limu 


Ntat 












Asparag&psh Sanfordiima Harv. 


kohu, limu 


Ellis 


Video: 
AM 


KauaYs kohu is Ic-loa (long) where it is 'oJa 'ia. 1 aim's kohu ispokopoko 
(Short). 










kohu. limu 


Pukut 


207 


A soft, succulent, small seaweed ftsparogvpsis (axifarmis ), with densely 
branched funy tops that are tan, pink, or dark red, arising from a creeping stem- 
like portion; one of the best liled edible seaweeds, prepared in balls tor market 

Also- limu koko and lor some infonniuils iipchc, lipehu, Upa'akai 




Also ham koko and tor 
some mrbnnante hpebe,. 
Epehu, ITpa'akai 




lisptsragopsistaxifenttls (DeMe) Trevifdtf 


kohu, limu 


Abbofl 1996 


24 


Two types - kohu Ifpebe * light colored, kohu koko = dark red (Ksua'i 
distinction). Choice limu of ali'i 


limu Epa'akai (Ni'ihan), Upche 
and lipjTakai {Maui}. 






Asparagopsls taxiformis (Delile) Trwtswi 


kjfal, JtftKf 


rlWwHJ^tS 


9, W 


Cfeaned >n sah water, then in fresh water and soaked overnight Add salt. Mfilam 
» ma loko o t» pjPofo li'i. Two solar Sonus, koko (Wood-Jed) ox irpthe (light* 
colored). 











Appendix A.: Limu Database 
P»g» £4 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SEARED NAMES 


tATtN NAMES 


kohn, limu 


Ltnd 


Interview 


Method far planting limu kohu. Take back the roots (holdfasts) thai sometimes 
come out when picking this limu, and stuff them into link holes in die reef where 
limu hohu nmmally grows. 










kohu,limu 


Howard 


Interview 


She picks up this limu at a place called l&upapa 'Qhua (reef wifii manini fish 
babies). 








Aspojxjg&psis toxiformis (Delile) Trevisan 


KCflALE 


Doty 


3 


(Chamberlain) 










koiale 


Sefchell 


103 












koia|e r Umu 


Chamberlaut 


32 












KQJCO 


Dory 


3 










Asparogopsis sanfavdiaria Harv.; Lmwmia 
WP? 


koto. 


Sctthell 


103 


Soft, yuung form aftaurencia according to some people. 


tkiukahu 








koko 


Pukui 


161 


Same as limu kohu, a seaweed. 


lhuukohu 




Same aa 'akoko 


Aspatngopsis laxiformis {Delile) Trevisaa 


kokctlimu. 


Pukui 


207 


Same as limu kohu. Lit- blood seaweed. 


liaiukohu 






Aspttragapsis laxifarmis (Dehle) Trevisan 


koko, timu 


Chamberlain 


32 












koko. limu 


Hcmiques- 
Peabody 


8# 












kokdi. limu 


MacCaughey 
L910 


476 


"the Ted linwf 








Asparagopsis Sanforflana Harv. 


koko r lima 


Rccd 


86 




limu koto, limu lipaakai, limu 
Jroehu 






Asparogopsis Sanfotdfana Harv. 


KOLOA 


Dory 


3 


(Chamberlairt'1 










kqlofl 


SKchell 


103 












kokia, limu 


Chamberlain 


12 












kfikae-o-Kamapua' a 


Pukui 


176 


Same asTTpuupit'ti, a seaweed. 


&pu.'u.pu'u 









Appendix A: Llmu Database 
Page 25 out of 59 



L1MUNAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


KUKAEPUEO 


Doty 


3 


ex Andrews. Dictionary (Satchel)). 










kukaepueo 


SctcheU 


103 








species of grass 




KULAPEPE1AQ 


Doty 


4 


Distorted Gracllaria cormopifolia (Selchell) 








Gracilaria soranapijolia J Ajardh 


kulapepeiao 


Setchell 


104 


h.fa£xamAGracitari(tcartytv>piJblia , Means caning. 










KUMULJMUKALA 


Doty 


4 


(Chamber iain) 










biitiulimukala 


Seiche!! 


104 












fctuouiliouikala, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












KUMUUPOA 


Doty 


4 


(Chamberlain) 










kvnfuiipos 


SeKfteU 


104 












kumulipoa, ]jmu 


Chamberlain 


yi 












KUWELU 


Doty 


4 










Gtftdivm. spp? 


fcinvelu 


Benriques- 
Peabody 


S63 












kuwfilu 


Pukui 


187 


Same as limu loUja. 


Limuloloa 




woody shrub with a long tail-tike tnflaiKcenw 
resetnbluisj cockscomb, perhaps an amaranth 




kuwclu. limu 


Reed 


87 




llmu kekuwelu 






Gelidium up? 


la'au kanaka 


AbboHL99fi 


33 


Man's medicine (paiaxauf-a ) 








Gflfaxwa 


Jehetehe T Tlio 


Pukui 


199 


Same as Lepe-a-Hina, seaweeds. 


lepe-o-Hina, 






Halymeniaformwa Harvey ex Kutzing 


kpe-a-Hina, Umu-3- 
Hina 


Ah Quiii 


Interview 


Red and slimy. Eaten with lemon and soiu. 











Appendix A: Limu Database 
Paga 26 out of 59 



LIMUWAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 1 INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


LEPE-AHINA 


Doty 


4 


Probably = LEPE-O-HINA 








HatymmiQ formosa Harvey ex Kutzing 


lepe Bhina 


Magmder 


77 










Hahmenia formosa Harvey ex Kutzing 


lepeahiaa, limu 


Reed 


37 


Very perishable, must be cleaned in salt water and eaten soon after preparation. 








Halyncnia formosa Harvey ex Kutzing 


lepe|epe-g-Hina 


Pukui 


204 


Some as lepe-o-Hina, a seaweed. 


lepe-o-Hina 




Monarch butterfly, Kamehameha butterfly; 
nudibranchia 


Halytteniajbrmosa Harvey ex Kutzing 


tefKH^Kina 


Pukui 


2W 


A red seaweed <pafym*niefon»&xn ) with flat blades bearing fringed and 
irregular margins, with a variety of colors ranging from ted to yellow; common 
allusion ta swirling in water lesembJing movement of pi'fi in dancing. 

Also called LeheLehe Tlio, lepelepe-o-Hma, limu-pepe-o-Hma, pfi'u-o-Hi Mafca. 


lebelehe 'Ilio, lepelepe-o-Huia, 
limu-pepe-o-Hina, pa"u-o-ffi'iafia 


Also called lehelehe "ilio, 
lepelepe-o-Hui3. [im«-j)ep& 
o-Hina, pTu-o-Hi' ralca 


Same as fcpelepe-o-Hina, a butterfly 


Halyneniajormosa Harvey ex Kutzing 


Lepe-o-Hina.. limn 


Abbott 1996 


26 


Eaten on some day. 


bmu lepe ula'ida 






Holymwlajorviasa Harvey ex Kurntig 


kponalo 


Pukui 


204 


A kind of seaweed. 










leponalo 


Hcniiquw- 
Peabody 


863 












Likolehua 


Pukui 


205 


A fckdoF seaweed. 






sweet potato variety 




Untanauiana 


Ppkui 


207 


A Und of seaweed. LiL, braitcnnig seaweed 










Ijhiaa 


Pukui 


207 


Same as hnhi moa, a seaweed. 


hulumoa 








UMU 


Doty 


4 


Algae in Samoan and Hawaiian. 










limu 


Andrews 




sea-moss or sea-gnes; a general name of every kind of eatable herb that grows in 
the sea; the Hawaiians also class Ote Emu among fish; the varieties are... (listed 
thfcmghout database under Source: Andrews) 










lutiimalaula 


Andrews 














limuekaha 


Andrews 














Iriau-cieeli-fciH 


Afcflsla 


60 


Used as Toad. Mixed with other medicines, it becomes very effective for the 
removal of white blotches on the skin. 











"3 m 
*» in 









M 

■SB 



3H 






I 

■3 



* 4 

•af 



fi 



a b : 
* 1 



f I 
I* 



5-S 



Si 

8 J 

IS s 



3 5 



8 " 
If 



1 



«j m 


J 15 

J o 



31 

B ft 



I 



1 a 

H 

ll 



i 

j. 

a 

i 



fl 

II 

g .a. 



if 

S 7 



3 8 



■as 



fi 

lit 



I£ 



i S 



j 
1 



Appendix A; Littu Database 
Page 30 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


upahapaiw 


HemiqiM&- 
Peabody 


363 












Epahapaha 


Pufcui 


2QE 


A general term for BC3 lettuce fJlvaJintfata an&Mvnostrama axySpenttmtt }, 
common ercen seaweeds with delicate broad blades, usually with wavy margins 
Eaten as a minor dement mixed wzlfr other testier seaweeds. 

Also "ilioha'a, lipaha, Hpaha, JTpMaSialaha. pahapaha (probably reatrictcd to 
Kaua i), pakaiea (restricted to Hawai"i), and pBLahnlaha (Maui, Moloka' i, and 
CTabu)- 




Also 'ilioha'a, iTpaha, 

Eponft, rfffltahnlflha 

pahapaha (probably 
restricted to Kaua' i), 
Pflkftiw (restricted to 
Hawaii), and pSlahalaha 
(Maui, Moloka' i, and 
O'ahu). 




Uivafd&ciota Delile wAMortostroma 
axyspermum (Kmzmg) Doty 


bpahapaha, Limn 


Kccd 


as 


Sometimes boiled with squid. 








Ulva lartuCa t-igidti (Agh.) l_e Jalis 


izpahapiha, limp 


Chamberlain 


32 












LIPAHAPALA 


Doty 


4 










Ufva lacluca 


lip aha pa la 


Setchell 


104 












Jipahet 


SefcheH 


105 


Found on Maui. 


pahee 








LlPAHE'E 


D«y 


4 


(Maui); - PAHEE (Hawaii), tfimmftPorphyrakucmtieta (Reed) 








Parphyra hucasttexa Tntiret 


ITpahe ■: 


Pukui 


20S 


Same as Limulu'au, a seaweed. Kaua i. 


limn liTau 








Upaiht « 


Pukui 


203 


Same as pihe'ehe'e, a seaweed Called lipShoe on Maui. 


pane'ehe'e, tipahoe (Maui) 








bpabee, limu 


Reed 


at 


Reported only foam wo islands and sc&rcs: called iimu Juan on Kauai and limn 
Itpohu on Hawaii. Grow quite near the tide Line along show, out on exposed Wad 
lava rocks in rough water. 

Appears in winter or spring after heavy storms and last far only a few days. 
Washed in fresh, water, adt added, put into clear water. Sometimes opihi is added 
and kept in jars for many weeks. 

Pounded to a pulp with aali and the juice is used to moisten baadaEW on cuts or 
bruises. 


limn Luau 






Porphyra teucosticUf Thuret 


(fpahc'ehe'c 


Futur 


208 


SanwaytfpB7*?> 


JTpuhc'e 








Upahe'ehe'e 


Pukui 


208 


Some as Kpabe't, 


Uparw'e 









Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 31 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


mroftMATioN 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


BpShoe 


Pukni 


208 


Same 85 lipahe'e, & seaweed. Maui. 


Lipahe'c 








LIPAKAI 


Doty 


4 


ex Chamberlain (- L1PAAKA1?) 










lipakai 


SetcheU 


103 


Possible contraction or misprint of Jipaakai 










lipakai Limit 


Chamberlain 


32 












UPALAHALAHA 


Doty 


4 


Utvajosctata (Maui); Ulvaspp. Monasiromn spp. (Setehdi); Ufva lactuco ; 
LlPALAHALOHA (SelcheU) 








IJhtifaxciatti Delile; Ulvttspp., MantHTrotna 
spp.; Vha itwhtca 


NpaJahaJaha 


Setehell 


105 


Maui name for pakaiea. 


pakaiea (Hawaii) 






Uiva spp., Monostroma spp- 


LTp&laJtalaha 


PukiM 


20S 


Same as lipahapaha, sea lettuce. 


lipshapaha 






Uhvafasciala Delik and M)rnMivwna 
vxyspermum (Kutziiig) Doty 


lipa-laha-lflha. ILmu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


138 




limupaka-ea 






Ulva laciuca 


UpalahaJaha, limu 


Reed 


36 




uitiupakaea 






UJva lactuca (adnata (Wulf.) J. Ag. 


UpaJao 


SefcheLL 


105 












UP A LAC 


Doty 


4 


{Chamberlain} 










Ltpa.la'5 


Pukui 


20S 


Same as lipalawai, fresh- water algae. 


lipalSwaj 


£aa»e as UpSlflwai 






lipalao. limu 


ChwnbeHiun 


32 












lipalawai. 


Hetuiques- 
Peabody 


863 












lipalawai 


SeicheLI 


105 


Found in fesb running water and brackish water where it is dark greenish brown. 










LTpaltwai 


Ahb&n 1996 


13 


freshwater or brackish water algae also eaten by mauka dwellers. 


limapAULwai 








Epaiiwai 


Pukm 


208 


Edible, green, fresh-water algae, consisting of tufa of braaclung threads 
(Ptikophora spp. azAStt&wfotitwn spp }, or afa network pf threads 
fffydrodictyo/t ), oi of simple threads #plrogyra spp. ). Also LTpala'e, nehe, 
paia'O, pfllawai 




Also ITpala'fl, nehe, pala'5, 
paiiwai 




Pithophora spp. and tiiigeoclonium spp. or 
ffydrvch'ctyon oiSpirogyra Spp. 



Appendix A: Linn Database 
Page 32 out of 59 



L1MUNAM£ 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


li*pAlA-wai 


Doty 


4 










Sligeoclamumfaikltmdictim Kuetz.; Pilhaphont 
affinis Nc-rdst 


li-pala-wai.limu 


MstCaughey 
1917 


139 




limu pala-wai 






SugeochniHm Fatklandicjan Kuete. 


]]-pala-wai.limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


142 




limu pala-wai 






Plthophoraafftms Nordsl. 


lipalawai. limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












lipalswai. limu 


Reed 


an 




limu paJawai 






Pithophora affinis? Nordst., PiTfiopham 
polymorphs Sligeoctonium xp. ? 


LSPALU 


Doty 


4 










Laurencia 


lipalu 


Henriquea- 
Peabody 


863 












lipalu 


Setchell 


106 


Young plants of a species of Laurencia 








LattrvrKla sp. 


lipalu 


Putiii 


208 


A seaweed much like buln "iJ» J ghtdophGra nitida ), and perhaps [be same; 
edible, grcea, soft, slippery tufts. 


hulu ilio 






CladophoroniUckt Kuetz. 


Gpaaaoa 


Pukui 


208 


A seaweed. LiL, fragrant seaweed. 










b'pee 


Seed 


57 




limu lipeepee 






Laurenciapinaiijida (Gmel.)Lam.,Z.. 
perforata Mont., L. obiusaia, L. virgala (Ag.) J. 
Ag. 


LBTE 


Doty 


1 


? Krattwtimi of LIPEEPEE {MacQm&hey) 








LnurwKio 


Jfpc'c 


Puiui 


3GB 


Same as Kpe'epe'e. 


Epe'epe'e 








lipee, limu 


Reed 


£7 




Kmu maneonco. limu olipecpcc 






Lawerxfa ptrmattftda (Gmeh) Lam. 


lipee, limu 


MacCaughey 
L9L7 


153 




limu li-pee-pee 






Laurencia spp. 


lipccpee 


Setchell 


106 


"One day limu." 








Laurencia 6rbtusa var. racemose Amansia 
giomerata Ag. 


lipCCpM 


Henriques* 
Ptabody 


Sd3 













Appendix A: Limu Database 
Pago 33 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


LIPFEFE'E 


I>oty 


I 


Laurencia (MacCaughey);v4iJnmttfl£fomerata (Puaa7, Hawaii), AdUrftflCto 
tfWtaa war racemasa (SetclieJlJ 








Laurencia: /4ma/ts) a glome rata Ag.; Lflurwwffl 
oblusavar. racemosa 


fipe'epe'e 


Magruder 


til 










I4wr6n£i(i siK£isa Cribb 


lipe'epe'e 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


'Aina Haina. Cmnchy ''Oi akw ka ono o ka lipe'epe'e ma mua o ka manauea. 










upe'epe'e 


Keoliofcttlok 


Video: 
AM 


Season is Eiekemapa, New Year. Kualoa has that kind, of good liimi. 










lipe'epe'e 


Pukui 


20B 


Some native species of a genus of edible seaweeds fyzurencia parvipapiHoia, L 
dotyt, L, succisa ), snort with, stiff; knobby bimchlers. nestling, especially in 
basaltic xock. Also 'ape'epe'e, ho'onuuu, Upe'e, pe'epee. 




Also 'ape'epe'e, ho onuau, 
Upe'e, pe'epe'e. 




Lewrencia parvipaptfidia Tseng, L, dosyi Saito, 
L succisa Cribb 


Epeepee 


Kauflhipaulfl 


Video: 
AM 


Ma Nanakuli Aia i lalo o ka 'aki'aki 










Epe'e'pe'e 


Haanio 


Audio 


Loa T a m» Kona, Vole nui. 










Epe'e'pe'e 


Howard 


Interview 


She picks up this limu ai a place called laupapa 'flhua (Teef with manini fish 
babies). 








Laurencia spp. 


li-pec-pee, limu 


MacCaugbey 
1^17 


153 


For the finer, longer forms. 


Emu tipee 






Laur&tcia spp. 


hpeepeejimu 


Reed 


87 


Grow far out on the coral reefs or on exposed rocks in the surf, Very perishable,, 
mij&t be cleaned in saltwater and eaten soon after preparation. Cooked witii botle 
meats bng enough Tor the gelatin to be softened or dissolved. Sometimes used in 
inomona. 


limu moneOneo 






Laurencia papiffora (Font.) Grey. 


Lipeenee, lkiu 


Reed 


S7 


Found drifted on sand or rocks. Grow far out on the eons! reels or on exposed 
rocks in the surf. Very perishable, must be cleaned in suit water and Eaten soon 
after preparation 

Cookedwith boiled meats fong enough for (he gelatin to be softened or dissolved 
Sometimes used in inomona r 


lipee 






Laurettcia pinattfida (Gmel.) Lam., L perforata 
MonL, L. oblusaSa, L. virgata (Ag) J r Ag. 


lipeepee. limu 


Neal 












LaUrencia spp. 


li pec pee, limu 


Neal 












Laurencia spp. 


Upe'epe'e, limn 


Abbott 1996 


30 


Bam* hwvft trmnfenwrf iknmfc taAccettltophara spicifem but same infemnante 
recognize this error. 


lipe'e, IfpcpC (Ni'ihau), limit 
ape'epee (variety cd" Upe'epe'e). 






iMUrenda suCcisa Cribb, L. dotyi Saito 


npe'epe'e, limu 


Abbott 1996 


12 


rCppu to hula dancers. 








Laurvnvia spp. 


llpehe 


Pukui 


ZOS 


Same as Upa'akai, salted bmu. 


Ipa'akai 









Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 34 out of S9 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


UPEflU 


Doti 


4 










Aspar&gopsis SanJordionQ Harv. 


lipdlu 


Setcbell 


106 












lipehu 


PuJtui 


20E 


Sarnc as Hpa atai t suited limu 


lipa'akai 








lipeha> limu 


Reed 


EG 




limu kqhu, limu lipaakai, limu 
koto 






Asparagapsis Sanjbrdtana Harv. 


lipehu. limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


153 




limu kohu, limu lipa-akai 






Axporagtipiis Son/brdiana Harv. 


lipehu, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












Bpepe 


Pukoi 


208 


Same as ITpe'epe'e. Ni'uWi 


ITpe'epe'e 








Upepeiao 


Henri ques- 
Feabody 


863 












Gjpepeuw 


ft*« 


20S 


A itmwl. Also J«hu pepeiaD and limu hilapepeizo 






Aiso limu pepeiao and limu kulapepeiao a fresh- 
water moss, usually qualified by wai. 




LI-PEPE-IAO 


Doty 


4 










Amunsia glome rata Ag. 


li-pepe-iao, limu 


MaeCaughey 
1917 


154 


Used for food. 


limu pepe-iao 






Amonsia glomerate Ag. 


Upepciao, limu 


Reftd 


36 


Different forms of die same name on Hawaii, not widely used, local. 


limu pspeiao 






AmonsiQ gtomerata Ag. 


LIPEWALE 


Dory 


4 


{'Chamberlain) 










hpewalc 


Setefwll 


106 












Upewale, limu 


CbamlmtaiEi 


32 












UPOA 


Dafr 


4 


"not Etnmg Jand"£>ittv" J ° l oS^wimrt'o (Seiche!!); Dicryota dtchoioma; Haliseris 
partialis (Rted'y, HallserlS pklgittgramma; Dictyola QCUIilobavar. distorts 
Ofeal) 








Dktyout divaricata Lamauroux, Dicfyota 
i&chotama (Hiuls.) Latnx.; Haliseris partialis; 
ffattitrw fiagio^-amma Mqh\; Dictyota 
acMiloba vor, distorta L Aj*. 


bpoa 


Magruder 


41 










Dteiyapfcrfs ausimtfr (Sander) Askenasy,&. 
piagjogramma (Mc-ntagne) Vickers 



Appendix A: Lirau DatAija.se 
Page 35 out of 59 



LIMTJ NAME 


SOURCE 


FACE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SUA RED NAMES 


LATIN NAME5 


lipca 


Millet 












Haiteeris plagiogramma Mont. 


lipoa 


Simpson 














lipoa 


Seichel] 


92,105 


Most delicious fragrance. Word lima doc applied to this name in speaking 








Halise ri <s plagjogrammQ Mont,, Dictyara 
Lamx., II. patens 


lipoa 


Henriques- 
Peabody 


B63 












lipoa 


Bryan 












Jlaiiseris 


Epoa 


Kara 


Interview 


There are different kiods of Ifpoa, 










Gpoa 


Wons 


Interview 


The kali and netiue eat the lipoa. On Ni'ihau, there isalot of Upoa, but the 
Ni'ihau people consider it Opala ( ien it is Ulc right season, the OCeCTi 
is thkk with Ifpoa and it wastes up on die sand making a very strong smell 










Gpoa 


Haanio 


Audio 


Loan ma Kona, a'ole oui. 










Gpoa 


Ewfllito 


Audio 


Naloino 'oe.kaka 'oea aii-oki. H&'ckisnDiU/kDQka amok. M&imBitm used 
(o be (HBwai'i Kai now). He matmwa no e pae ntai. 'A'ole nana lei 'ia, he meaai 
wale no. 










lipoa 


E&s 


AM 


WaikikTis onaona i ka Upoa. 










lipoa 


AbQuin 


Interview 


ECau is February on Maui. 










upoa 


Pukui 


208 


Biadeiike, branched brown seaweeds pfctyt&ieris pktgi&gr&nmB audi*. 
eajsimiis ) with conspicuous midrib on blade, unique arc-ma and Havor ; highly 
prized qn all islands. 








Bictyopterist pfagfogramma (Montague] Vickers 
and D. aialraiix (SojuJcr) Astenssy 


ITpoa 


Gannon 


biter,icr(v 


Her all time fawotiie limu ia Upoa. 










Upoa, limu 


Reed 


S7 


Grow tar out on the coral reefs or on exposed rocks in the surf. Iron rod is used tc 
loosen sometimes. Dropped into hoi soup or gravy as K is about to he seived. 

Very often pounded and mixed: with other seaweeds to give mem its peculiar 
jenetrating, spicy flavor and odor. 








Holiseris partialis. ffaJisens piagiogramma 
Mont. 


tipoa, limn 


tfacCanghe> 
19L7 


148 


It is a favorite among the natives. 






Holiseris piagfG&anma Moot. 


lipoa, Limu 


Chamberlaiii 


12 













li 
11 



■§ a 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Pago 37 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


LDVUPCTU 


Doty 


4 










DlctyosphaerwfpvulQsa (Ag.) Uznt.-.Laurtncia 
spp.; Vctfonia vtricufaris Ag. 


LTpu'upliu 


KeohokaJole 


Video: 
'AM 


Eaten with salt salmon. 










Upu'upu'u 


Pukni 


208 


An edible green seaweed (pirtorao wrncufems ), with rnrgio' joints and short 
branches- Also kukie-o-Kjmapua'a. 


kutflfr-o-Kamapuaa, Upun 


Also kOtae-o-^KainapTia^a 






li-pmi-pua, limu 


19 L7 


142 


Used by them (natives.) for food- 








Villoma urli&iltirii Ag. 


li-puu-puu, limu 


MacCaugbey 
1917 


153 


A name used locally in certain districts on Hawaf i and Maui 








lawenciQ spp. 


LOLOA 


Doty 


5 


(Maui, Kauai) 








Gelidiiatt; PierocJadui vapillacea (Gmelin) 
Santelices el Homniersaiid;Gefrci"i | n pusillum 
(Siackh.) Le Jot,; Geiidium onions// 


Loloa 


Abbott 1947 


204 










GeUdtutn 


loloa 


Pukiii 


ill 


A seaweed (KL line 95), probably the same as limu loloa. 


limu lolau? 








loloa 


SetehelL 


107 










Possibly Gelidhltn Amm&» 


loloa 


Bryan 












Gtfidium 


ta-loa, limu 


MacCaughey 
1916 


476 


"die Long or slender limu" 








Geiidtutn sp. 


loloa, limu 


Reed 


is 


This gwrics often called Jimukilna on Maui and Kauai. Cooked with, boiled 
meats long enough for die gelatin to be softened or dissolved- 








PterocSadia capiHoces {Gmelin) Sanlelrces et 
Homme rsand 


loloa, limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


3?H 


Eietensively nswl w food. 


limu ekana-kaha 






Gelidium attennaium, G. cenxtm. G.jeftctman 
(Boiy|L G, intricatUM (J. Ag.) K.uei2, Cr. 
Utlifoiiwn Bom,. G carti!agim>tim (L.)Gaill, G. 
p»sitlum {StackhoAise) Le Jolis 


loloa, limu 


Reed 


S7 


Giow quite near toe tide line along shore, but on exposed black lava rocks in 
rough, water. Cooked with boiled meats long enough for ihe gelatin to be softener 
ardissohvi. 








Ge/fdtum attenuatm?, G. contemn var.?, G. 
latifoliwn? Born.,G. mlcropumtn?, G 
paivinalum?, G. pu&lhwt? {Sl&ckhouw) Lc Jolis 


loloa, limu 


PublL 


207 


Several species of edible red seaweeds Qelithum}, cylindrical or flattened, more 
or less pimmtely brenched, tenure firm and smooth. 




"anapanapa, '€kahakaha. 
kuwehi 




Getfditm 


loloa. limu 


Neal 












(jrlirfiuit! 



Appendix A.: Limii Database 
Page 38 out of S3 



LJMTJ NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


loloa, limu 


fteed 


57 


Grew quiet near the tide line along shore* but an exposal black lava cocks in 
rough water. Cooked with boiled meats long enough for toe gelatin to be softener 
or dissolved. 


limu qkatakplia 






Gtlidixnr filictnum? Borj 


loloa, limn 


MacCaughey 
1917 


150 


Used by the natives of Kauai and Maui. 








PttroclaeXa capitlaam (Gmel'in)San1cli«Sflt 
HommsTMnd 


fWu 


Bryan 












Porpfora 


LU'AU 


Doty 


5 










Porphyraloicosikia Thuret (Kauai) 


UIAU 


Doty 


5 


(Maui) 








Poiyopes? 


fti'au 


Pufcni 


214 


Same as lima IS au, d seewKd. 


limu IB'au 








ruau, limu 


Reed 


m 


Gn^ quite near the tide line alonjc. shore, but on exposed black lava rocks in 
rough water. Appears in winter or spring after heavy storms and last lor only a fe 
days. Washed in fresh water, salt added, put into clear water. 

Sometimes apihi is added rmd kepi in jars for many weeka h Pounded to a pulp 
with salt and the juice is used to moisten hBudateson tuts or brniaefl- 


lima lipahee 






Porpftyra leucosiicto Thuret 


hum, limu 


Keed 


88 


A singfe small tfuximm sent by native oa blast, limiiar to pQrphy7a. 








Parapet? 


lna T u, lima 


M&cCaughey 
1917 


143 


A very highly prised delicacy. 








Pvrphyra feucosticta Thuret 


IB'au, titxiu 


Pukui 


207 


A red seaweed ^orphyra so. ), growing in the winter on boulders in exposed 
places, with delicate, rhin blades appearing hi groups. BesLfcnown on Kaua'i but 
knowm on all major islands. Also pahe'e or pahe'ebe'e. 




Abo pahe'e or pahe'ehe'e 




Porphyra sp. 


LUPE 


Duty 


5 


(.Chamberlain) 










lupe 


Selehell 


107 








hihimanu oriay that was forbidden for women to cat 
also a fish. 




lupe, lintu 


Chamberlain 


32 












maka 


Pufcui 


32* 


A seaweed. See aUnh 




alani 


varieties of sweet potato. See rudtattui, main koali, 
and maka mil 




MAKALOA 


Doty 


5 


(Chamberlain) 










m&kaloa 


Pubii 


227 


A seaweed. 











3 3 



it 



Si 



P 3 

g, y X 
o o a 



D f 

g — ' 

III 

sis 

B A ^ 



'3 £ ^ 

S ° M 

Ji 1 



1 

I 



1 
II 






as 

C ft 



ir 

1 6 



id 
*. a. 



n 1 

a e s 



SI 

-§■» £ ■a I 
| b «r I * 

!i! i! 
ip is 

1 s 1 iS 



'll 

3 3 



SI 



£1 



1* 

if 



B 



81 



is 



I I! 



J .44 

i i: 



! 



x a 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Pa^Q 41 out of 59 



LJMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


manconco 


Setchell 


SOB 


Kwps only one day. 








jMurencia tftxusa w.racemosa 


manc''ant'o 


MflgTudeT 


81 










Laurencia nidifica J. Agardh 


manc'on^o 


Pukui 


238 


An edible seaweed, Laureticia nidifica 








Laurencia nidijica I. Agardh 


ma-neo-neo, limu 


MasCwi£hey 
L9L7 


153 


For the shorter, coarser species. 








Laurencia spp. 


manconeo, limu 


Reed 


87 


Found drifted on sand or rocke. Iron rod is used to loosen sometimes. Pounded 
vJish salt and the juice is put on cuts or bruises. 


limu olipeepee, limu lipee 






iMur&n&a pirmair/idu (Qmel.) Lam. 


maneaneo. limu 


Neal 












LaureiKia spp. 


ttmnecmeo, liuiu 


fcced 


B7 


The wrcral species of Laurencia are generally called limu maneoiKO, if coarse oi 
short and limu tipeepee if finer and longer. Limu lipee is an abbreviation. while 
limu lipuupuu has only local use in places on Hawaii and Maui. 

Found drifted on sand or rocks. Iron rod is used to Loosen sometimes, Pounded 
with salt and the juice is put on cuts or bruises. 


limu |i pee pee 






Laurenciapapitiasa (Fbr&t.) Grv. 


manconeo. limu 


Chamberlain 


n 












maneoneo, form 


Reed 


87 


Found drifted on sand or rocks. Iron rod is used to loosen sometimes. Pounded 
with salt and the juice is put on cots or bruises. 


limu lipuupun 






iaarfneia sp. ? 


miuie'onc'o, limu 


Abbott 19% 


32 


Young plants are more tender and las a sharper peppery taste. 








Laurenciam&fKQ J.Aeardh 


MANU 


Doty 


S 










Chaetoffxvpha antennina {Bttfy) Kv&iag 


inanu 


Bryan 












Ctodophara 


niacin, limu 


Reed 


B6 




ItRuihuluilio, limu ilio 






Chaetamorpka antennina (Bory) Kutzuig 


marm, Limu 


MacCHUgaey 
1917 


141 




limu hulu-ilio, limu ilio 






Ciadophora antenntoa (Bory) Kuerz. 


MAUAUWEA 


Doty 


5 


(misprint of MANAUWEA?) ex Cnnmberl&in (Setchell) 










Euauaunea 


Seiche]] 


LOS 


Probably a misprint Fat limu maoauwea. 











Appendlac A: Limu Database 
Page 42 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


mauauwea, limu 


Chamberlain 


31 












maunauea 


Simpson 














m&waewue 


Pukui 


243 


A seaweed. 










roswaewpe bilihune 


Pukui 


243 


The name of a seaweed. 










mc-nau-ea 


Bryan 




(In Daira,. Kauai, Moloksi) 








Gnmittaia 


HENAUEA 


Doty 


3 


(Kona, Oaou, Kauai, and Molokai) 








Graciiaria 


moa, limu 


Pukni 


207 


Same as butu moa, a seaweed. 


hulunuia 








MOOPUNA 


Doty 


5 


KA.-UK>A;Gnffithsia ovate Probably MOOPUNA-A-KA-LIPOA. 








Gnffithfia oiu/fr Harv.? 


mo'opuna 


Pukui 


254 


Short for mo opuna-fl-ka-lipoa. 


rno n opuna-a4a-lipoa ; . aupupfl 






Griffith&ia sp. 


moo-puna, limu 


MaeCauBhey 
1917 


E54 


A ■very scarce species; used for food on Maui and southern HawaiM. 


limn ka-lipoa. limn au-pupu 






Grijfirh.ua owitis Harv.? 


moopuna. limu 


Reed 


87 




limu ka-npoa, limu aupupu 






GrifiittKitrsp.? 


moopuEia, limu 


NeaJ 












Griffithsia 


jnoopuiifi a ka lipoa 


Henri qucc- 
Peabody 


863 












mo' opun a-a-kg -I rpoa 


Pukui 


234 


A fine red seaweed prfffirfuiasp. >, consisting of branching hairlike tufis; edible. 
Common in Ea'u and Kona, H*wa«' in 


aupflpa, mo'opuna 






Griffithsia sp. 


moopuna*ka*lipoa, 
limti 


Reed 


66 


Very perishable, must be cleaned in salt water and eaten soon after preparation. 
Sometimes are ripened by soaking in fresh water. 








Griffithsia sp.? 


mo' opwna-o-toiira-tali 


Abbott 199fi 


23 


Clinging species of limu that is common on limu kala. 










MUALEA 


Doty 


5 


nimored to bt poisonous {Seiche HJ- 











Appendix A; limu Database 
Pago 43 out of 59 



UMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


mualea 


Setehell 


103 


Poisonous Jnnu, curly and peenia! Placed on not stones to TOclt and can be drift 
when it becomes reddish and mote potent Placed in Awa it would bill the drinke 
in IS minutes. Grows in two places near Hana r 

Dritd and powdered, put in tube of pili grass and blown onto perron lo be 
poisoned. Handled at lowtide when ii is exposed, using sticks. 










itahawek 


Pukm 


253 


Same as hulu "ilio (Cluietomorplui antannina), a seaweed 


hulu 'ilio 




A bivalve of the family iBonontoiudae. Abo 
mahawele. On O'ahu, itsJ'ema cortetlaia, Atrina 
sp. 


Cfmettitrtarpiki amennina (Bory) Kutzing 


nahawele 


Henri qucs- 
Peabody 


863 












naio 


Pukui 


259 


Name of a seaweed. 






bustard sandalwood fifyopoiwn smdwicense ) 




nakeke 


Pukui 


259 


A blown seaweed ffydrBcktfknts chute-mas \ resembling paha and closely 
related m it, but the surface pierced with holes of different sizes; not eaten. 








Ffydroclathruji rtathraltiS (C. Ag^rdhl Hnwe 


NANEA 


Doty 


5 










Hypnea nidificQ J.Agardh 


nanea 


Pukui 


J61 


A stawced (ffypnea xidijtca ) 






Same as mohihihi, a vine (*?g7w marina ) 


tfypmet nidijica J. Agardb 


nanea 


Stithdl 


109 










Hypn&t nicttfita J. Agardh. 


nan no 


Seithell 


109 












NANO'O 


Doty 


5 


(Cnnrnberlain) 










naoo'o 


hikui 


262 


A dark-red or purple seaweed, Hiidtobesameflsosnea 


nanea 






Hyprtea nidijica J. Agardb 


nanoo, lintu 


Chamberlain 


n 












NANUE 


Duly 


5 


(Chamberlain) 










mm lie 


Pukvi 


262 


Ait edible seaweed. 






Var. of nenue, a fish. 




nanus 


Seiche" 


109 












nanus, fimu 


Cfeambflriain 


tt 













Appendix A: Limu Database 
Pape 44 out. of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


NANUI 


Doty 


5 










Gratetoupiajttfcitta (Lamouroux) C Agardh 


hanui 


SetcheLL 


J09 


Crows in Kohala, edible, much like lipoa. Also found on MauJ 










nonm 


Kaiait 


loiaiTistt' 


Looks like lipoa. ft is also eaten, ft has a stronger smell than Itpoa and you can 
smell it when driving on Hamoa Road sometimes, ll lias seasons when it floats in 
and ig eaten by the tneilufr 

When you cut the 'Opu of the enemie, you can rinse the lnsides and mix that limu 
(which is already chopped up for you) with the poke. 










n.} 


Putui 


163 


A. seaweed. fKL "^ l0 *-) 










NEHE 


Doly 


5 










Sptrogyra spp. 


ftehe 


Pukiu. 


264 


Sums kinds of pond scums &pfrog/ra spp. ), fine fresh-water algae, consisting or 
rows nf single-celled fdamenis, each cell containing ribbonshaped spirals. Also 
limu kalawai, iTpala'S. llpaliwai, pala 6, paSwoi. 




Also burn bale wai, 
Irpala'fi, Hp&lSwai, pola'o, 
pailwai 




Spirogyra spp. 


hchc. limu 


Reed 


Rfi 




limu palawai, limu palao 






Spfrogyra up. (probably several) 


hehe, limu 


Pukui 


207 


Samt as limu kalawai. 


Limu kalawai 








NEI 


Doty 


S 










Gymnagongms venuicularis amerlama \. Ag., 
Gymnogan&wfi-Kiplittalis (Boiy)J. Ag. 


nei 


Puknj 


264 


Same askfiele'efe, a seaweed; according to Heed 1 16, same as limu uaun loli 


ItTnU Uaiffl hjli? 


k&'clc'ele 






ftei 


Kaina 


Interview 


'Opihilimii, oldtimers. eat with 'opihi (picked when dark). Smooth and grunchy. 








Ahnfeltiopsis fiabeUiformss (Harvey) MuSuda 


nei, limu 


Rfiad 


87 




limu ua.uakdi, Limu ekahaekaha, 
limu koeleele orkoele, limu 
awikiwiki 






Gymnagongrus wrmtculnris americma J. Ag., 
Gymno^ongms diciplinalis (Bory) J. Ag. 


nei, limit 


MacCaugncy 
1917 


150 




Limu ua-ufl-loU, limu ekaha-kaha, 
limu ko-ele-ele, Limu awiki-wiki 








NOHOMAHE 


Doty 


5 










Chaetatttorpho antenni/m (BoryjKuteinj 


nohomahe 


Se-teheiL 


1D9 










Chaetomarpha anteftnltta ( Bory) Kutying 


nu'a 


HMtriques- 
Peabody 


363 













Appendix A: Limit Database 
Baga 45 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


nti'a 


PllfcUJ 


272 


A kind of seaweed. 










OADAKA 


Doly 


5 


(Chamberlain) 










uaoaka 


Setthell 


109 












oaoaka, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












fj£0. limu 


111 


Video: 
AM 


'Ohi i k& limu. Before, limu ogo was rubbish. 










OgO, )imu 


Kechokalofe 


Video: 
AM 


Nui ma Kuploa. 










ohiohio 


Sew hell 


no 












OHIOHJO 


Dtrty 


5 


(rThamhprlnin) 










"ohi'ohio 


Pukui 


273 


A seaweed, 










ohiohio, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












chime 


Henrique s- 
Peabody 


863 












'ahum 


Pukui 


279 


A kind <rf seaweed. 










okala 


Setehell 


tlQ 










Gaiaxmra rvgosa (EIIIibci Solatider) 
Lamounnix 


OKALA 


Ooty 


S 










Gataxattm rugosa (Elllis et Solander) 
Laniouitnn 


'okala 


Pukui 


28t 


A rather small red seaweed Qaim&ura wgpsa ), regularly and densely branching 
ihe branches hallow and marked with rings; noi edible. Also p&alakala 

{GidtuCQura spp, } 


ffluno'a, kauna'oa 


Also pSkalakala 
{Gaiaxtmra spp. ) 


tame as 'flkole. sea anemone perhaps 


Gaiaxaura rugose (EIIUs et Solandex) 
LaniouToux 


OKUPE 


Doty 


5 


(Cbambc riaia) 










pkupe 


SetdLell 


1L0 













Appendix A; Linm Database 
Page 46 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SOARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


akupe, Ihtju 


Chamberlain 


32 












OLIPEEPEE 


Dorv 


5 










LoarenciaplRmtfflda (Gmel.) Lam. 


Qlipeepee, limn 


Reed 


87 




limumunenrieo, limu lipee 






Laurencia pittnatiftda (Gmcl,) Lara, 


OOCHIEA 


Doty 


5 


(Chamberlain) 










Oahiefl 


Setchfll 


110 












OrihieA, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












oolw 


Henriques- 
Peabady 


863 












Qolu 


Seiche]] 


110 


Favorite about Honolulu. 








Lmtrencia obbtsa -vat. ranetnasa, fiypnea 
nldtffca*!. Aeardn 


'OOLU 


Doiy 


5 










Chattpia compressa Harv.; ChonaVia 
ttnuissima was. intermedia Gtaa.: Latttencia 
nhtufo vat 1 , tuctmosa 


Vnlu 


Pukui 


290 


Two edible, fragile, red seaweeds Qiamptii sp. and Chondria tenuissima ). They 
melt in fresh water , hence must be cleaned in sea water. 






laro variety 


ChampiQ sp. and Chmdria lemassimo 


ChoIu, limu 


1917 


152 










CfKimpiQ wmpressa Harv, 


G-olu, limu 


MacCaughey 
1916 


478 










Chondria iermisslma 


o-olii. limu 


MacCgpghcY 
1917 


L53 


Used for food. 








Chondria tenuissima 


Oolu. limu 


Reed 


36 


Grow near the shore. Very perishable, must be cleaned in sail water and eaten 
MOTsftsfprepfirBriOtt. 








Chcattpiacomprtssa Harv., Chomiria 
T&wusiffia intermedia 


QqIu, limu 


Neai 












Champte compressa Harv. 


0PA1 


Doty 


6 


(Chamberlain) Probably = OPAE, 










opai 


SetohtLL 


1L0 













Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 47 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOUECE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHAH£D NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


apai, Limu 


Chamberlain 


>2 












'opihi limu 


Ewalito 


Audio 


Hiki Afi It 'aj. 










opihi limu 


AhQnin 


Interview 


1} {teen with clusters. 2) Long red. 










opihi. limu 


KaaJatea 


Audio 


Pupupu fcnna ^ano. KukQ lalo. 










'opihi, limu 


Ellis 


Video: 
'AM 


'A'alemaopopokainaaniaoli. 










ciuri 


Gaudichaud 


148 










Sphaervcoccia cmcirmus (Brown ex Turner) C. 
Agaidh 


'owakawaka 


KeohotaJole 


Video: 
"AM 


Tyr>e of limit 










pwakawaka 


AhQuin 


Interview 


Dark brawn, lettuce like, brittle. 










PA'AKAI 


Doty 


6 


HALE (Ctemberlam); LIPAAKAI? ex Chamberlain, (fide Setchell) 










p&akai 


Sechell 


110 




lipaakai 








paakai, ttmu 


Chamberlain 


32 












pa akai, timu 


Pukni 


207 


Limu salted for indefinite siotage without refrigeration. On Maui, usually limu 
fipoft. See lips' akai. 




Sec lrpaakai 






PAAKATEA 


Doty 


6 


(ChamlKJtfliii>; PAXA1EA orC/ftw? (Setchell) 








Vim? 


psakaiea 


Sets hell 


NO 




pakaiea 








paakaiea, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












PACAYA 


Docy 


6 










Vtvir lima \ Ufva campressa; Sv/eijia comprvwa 


pacaya 


Gaudichaud 


143 










Utva iinza iUiva comprsssa), (Soienia 
campressa ) 



Appendix A: Limu ustatws* 
Page 43 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SUAftED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


PAHAPAHA 


Doty 


6 










Monostroma tqtissimvm Wittrwk; Ulvafosciota 
Delile 


pahapaha 


Pukui 


2W 


Same as Hpahapaha, sea lettuce. 


upahupaha 






fyxyspenrmm (Kutzing) Doty 


pahapaha 


Sewlwll 


110 


KaW i name for pakaica (H&wai'i) 








UfvajCBCitua Delils.MwKWfnmia lalissimum 
Wtttrock 


pahapaha 


Ewabko 


Audw 


Pae mai n& 'o ia, uliuli. *Ai ka po'e kepaoX 'oki'ob me ta sofa & he aha la. 










(M&fl-fM&a, limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


W 




limu pa-laha-loha 






Uivcifasciala Delile 


p&hapaha, limu 


Bryan 












Vha 


pahapaha. limu 


Reed 


8& 


The three Vita spp. seem td he indistinguishabLe by the natives, and the duTofsnt 
islands and localities have various farms of lie name, but Limu pakaea is only in 
use on Hawaii. Grow near the shore. 

Dropped into hat soup or gravy as it is about to be served. Sometimes are ripened 
by soaking in fresh water. Tender tips arc rubbed between fingers and small 
molluscs of a special kind is added with salt. Pounded and put on bnjises r 


limu palahaloha 






Ulvafincima Delile 


pahapaha, limu 


Neal 












Viva spp. 


pahapaha, limw 


Chamberlain 


32 












PAHAPAHA-O- 
POLI 


Doty 


€ 


Hale (exChamberuuD fide SefchelTj. Probably = PAHAPA-O-POUHALE and 
named for a place on Kauai whete it occurs. 










pahapaha o poll hale 


SeWheEI 


J1L 












pahapaha o Polihale 


Abbonl996 


12 


Uha fascial* used as an adornment in hula, after the locality where it was used in 
western Kana'i. 








Uivajiticlatii Delite 


pah3paJns-o-Polili*lt 


Pukui 


299 


A kind of pahapaha said to be found only at Poli-hale, Kaua T i; after drying it was 
bslivved ta revive when totmersal m sea hhkj; a was made into ids (FS 1(0.) 








Utvasp. 


pahapaha o polihale, 
limu 


Chamber lain 


32 












pahapaha wai 


Pukui 


#9 


A sea lettuce pV/ra sp. ) with narrow frond. Found whwe sea and fresh water 
meet 








Ufwsp. 


pahee 


Hflnriquts- 
Peabody 


B53 













Appendix A.: Lirau Database 
Page 49 out off 59 



LIMUMAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


pahee 


SeKhell 


Ul 


Hawaii tame far LLpahee. Eaten raw and put an cooked meal. 


Up she e 








PAHEE 


Doty 


6 


(Hawaii) same as LIPAHEE (Seiche!)). 










pahee 


Magruoer 


39 










Parpkymsp. 


pahee 


Haank) 


Audio 


Ulu ma kalfle o Pahe'eWe ka inoa. Hc'okahi uhi 'ana o ka rnakahiki 










nahe'e 


Pitkui 


299 


Same as pShe'ehe'e, a seaweed. 


pahe'ehe'e 






Porphymsp. 


pahe'e 


Gannon 


Interview 


Recognized from pictuK in Magnaier book. 










pahe'e, liiau 


Abbott 1556 


23 


Used will i'a lomi (M fish?}. 


pfihe'ehe'e, lu an (Kana'i) 






Porpftyra spp- 


pfihe'ehe'e 


Pukui 


299 


A green cushion shaped solid seaweed forphymsp. , Formerly Dictyosphaerfa). 
Also Cpahe'e, iTpake'ebe'e, llpatae, psheV 




Also irpahe'e, Ifpahcehc'c, 
Iqraaoa, pahe'e 




Pwpf&rasp, 


PAKA-EA 


Doty 


f, 










Ulva lactuca lacinatu (Wulf,} J. Ag. 


paka-ea 


Biyan 












Utva 


paka-ea, limu 


MacCaughey 
L9I7 


J3B 




Junu lipa-laha-laha 






Viva lactuca 


pekaca, limy 


Reed 


83 




Jiinu tipalahalaha 






Ulva lacntca iacinata (Wulf.) J, Ag. 


PAKAELBAWA 


Doty 


6 


(Maui)— HULUHULUWAENA 








Graieioupia fiiieifia (LamOuTOux} C Auardh 


pakaekawa 


Setthell 


]L1 


Maui name for liululinluwaefla (Hawai i>. 


paieleawflii 








PAKA*ELE-AWA*A 


Doly 


6 


Knuat, all bal Hawaii (MacCotigaey) 








GroseloupfaJiUcina (Lamouroux) C. Afacdh 


paka-ele-awaa, ]imu 


MacCaugbey 
1917 


!J4 


This name is used exclusively on Kauai Both names are used on intermediate 
islaDds. 


limu huluiiuhiwaena 






GratefaitptafiUctna (Lamc-uroux) C. Aaardh 


pakaekawaa, tunu 


Reed 


8? 


Grow near the share. 


bmu hulnhuhiwaena 






GrafelonpiaftlKifie (Lamourous) C. Ayardh 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 50 out of 59 



LIMIT NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


PAKAIEA 


Doty 


6 










Vivaspp, andMvtatrvma in general; Ww 
fasciata Delile 


pakaiea 


Henriques- 
Peabody 


B63 












pakaiea 


SctchcU 


111 


Some say ii is edible, outers disagree. 








Uivajasciaa Delile, Monosrroma sp. 


pakakn 


Pukui 


304 


Some be rTpahapftbu, sea lettuce. Hawaii 






Same as Mlali'i, a variety of sugar cane; named For 
the seaweed; a variety of tarn. 




pakaiea, Jiiuu 


Abbott 1996 


12 


Relative of sea Jettnce, early ancestor of shark aumakua was wrapped in pakaiea 
after binbandputialo sea. Remnants of this garment is thought to be seen in the 
green sides of certain sharks. 

Shorter, broader, has irregular margins, lighter green in color than U fascials. 










pakalakala 


Pukui 


304 


Aeoaise, nan-edible seaweed Qaiaxaura spp. }. Cf- kaumfa, 'Skald, pakolekole, 
piHko'a 


pSkolekole 


Cf. kauno'o, 'flkala, 
paknlekole, piliko'a 




Gal&caura spp. 


PAKE LEA WE A 


Doty 


6 


(ex Chamberlain) PAKELEAWAA? (Setehell). 










pakele-a-wa'a 


Pukgj 


305 


An edible seaweed. Also tnttuhulu waetta. 


buluhulu waeoa 








PAKELEAWAA 


Doiy 


6 


(Maui) 








Grateiaupiajificitta <LatnoucauJt) C. Agardh 


Pakeleawaa 


Abbott 19+7 


206 


(Maui) 








Gra&ioupia 


pakcleawaa 


Setehell 


111 




pakaefeawa 








pakeleawa'a 


Sanborn 


Audio 


Lirou planting. They did it. "Chop-chop" is takeo on small stones. Don't uproot. 
Doesn't grow in rough water, likes sand, Grows ai low tide, long- More 'oao at 
some places because of the spring water. 

If a woman is pe'a, a'ole hele i ka bana. baumia 'A qkj komo i ke kai. 










pakeleawau, luuu 


Chamberlain 


32 












pakipaki 


Pukui 


303 


A seaweed. Alao pakupakii 


paMpakQ 


pakupakfl 






pSkoa 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


Pahe'e loa. Ulu i luoa o ka pflhaku a me ke one. PahipaJu, kobn bilika. 











Appendix A; Limu Database 
Page 51 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


pakolekole 


Pukpi 


306 


Same as p£kafckaEa. a seaweed. 


nfj^filfltpita 






(Jalaravra $pp. 


psKupstp 


Pukni 


306 


A seaweed. Also pakSpald 


patepake 


pake pake 1 






PALAHAI.AHA 


Doty 


G 


PAKA1EA? 








Mortosiroma?; Uivafasciata Delile ot 
Laurencia 


palabalaha 


Erygn 












Ulva 


palahalaha 


Sclchcll 


111 










Uiva sp. , MonoHroma sp. , Launncia perforate 
Mont? 


palahalaha 


Msgmdcr 


33 










Ufvafasciata Delile 


pfllahalahs 


Pukui 


307 


Same as npahapaha, a seaweed. 


ITpabapaha 






Ufvafetsciala Delile andMan&stromo 
oxygpertnwTi (Kutzing) Doty 


pSlahnlahfi 


Gannon 


Interview 


Put into soup after you turn the fite off (recognized from picture in Magmdcr 
book). 










palahalaha 


Howard 


Interview 


She doesn't eflttfiis limu but she knows some people cat it with shcjyu (Japanese 
style). 










palflhalaha, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












pilahalaha, Eitnu 


Abbott 1996 


17 


Ma with hulmmhtwAcria. 


rjanapaha (young taro leaves), 
pakaiea 






USvafasnaia Delile 


pjlflhalnhn, limn 


Pufcui 


207 


Some as pSlahalalui 2 


pJUah&lshfl 








PALA-HALQHA 


Doty 


6 










Utvafasciata Delile 


pa-Lalia-loha, limu 


M9cCangb?y 
1917 


138 




limu paha-paha 






UlvafasciQta Delile 


palahaloho, limu 


fceed 


88 




limu pahapaha 






Ulvafasciala Delile 


pala'fi 


Pnkui 


309 


Same as Upaliwai, fresh-water algae 


lipalawai 


Same as lipJulwai 






PALAPAHAXOU 


Doty 


6 










CBrrmwras clavutahan (C, Ag&rdh) Montagne 



Appendix A: Limn Database 
Page 52 out of 59 



LlMUNAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


palapahakou 


Seiche U 


L12 










Centroceras cUrfulatum (C. Ajfardh) Montague 


paJapohafcu 


Htnriqucs- 
Peubody 


S£> 












paia'uJa 


Pukui 


310 


A seaweed. 










patawai 


Satchel] 


L12 


Looks like limu eleele but is not as wane 


limu Lipalawai, Limu palawai 








pSlSwai 


Pukui 


331 


Same as limu kala wai. pond -scums. 


limu kaJawaj 








PALA-WA1 


Doty 


6 


Ll-PALA-WAf 








Stjgeoctartfitm Falktandicum Kuetz.; Sp/rogyra, 
tiydrodictyan reticttlatum (L.) Lagerh and Other 
green fresh water gptxJjes^Pithophorp ajpnix 
Nordst. 


palfl-wai 


MacCauehcy 
1917 


133 


Somctmies used by them (natives) for food. Thenaitie iiulsa applied to a numbe 
of other green fresh*water algae. 








Hydtmiiciyan reticulation (L.) Lagerii 


pala*wai, limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


139 


Used by them (natives) fur Food. 


limu li-pala-wai 






Stigeatfonium Fafkiawticum Kneiz. 


paltt-wai, linlu 


MacCaughey 
19L7 


143 


A number of them ore used by the natives fur food. 








Spirogyra spp. 


pala-tvni, limu 


MacCaughey 
19L7 


142 




ftmu li'pala-wai 






Pitfxyphora qffbriv fJordst. 


palawai, limu 


Reed 


S3 


Most all the edible green fresh-water algae are called lipalawai or polawme, and 
there ore perhaps a half dozen species in the mountain streams that ape known by 
these names. Pounded with limu eleele and salt and tied on cuts and bruises. 


limu lipalawai 






Pilfiophora ajjbtis? Nordst.. PMhophora 
pofymorpha. Stigeocltmtum sp r ? 


palawai, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












palawai, liiau 


Reed 


37 


Pounded with limu eleele and salt and tied on cuts and bruises. 








ffydrodicryon Ktieulawn {L,)Lageiti. 


palawai, limu 


Reed 


as 


Pounded with limu eleele and salt and tied on cuts and bruises. 


limu nehe, limu pohn 






SpirogyFa sp. (probably several) 


palawai, limu 


Abbott 1996 


13 


Freshwater ar brackish water algae also eaten by manka dwellers. 


lipalftwai 








PALEWAWAE 


Doty 


b 










Laurenda spp. 


polewawae 


SeteheU 


112 


YotHtglrfWenew 








Lawencia sp.? 



Appendix A: Limn Database 
Page 53 out off 59 



UMIi NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


palgwawae 


Pukui 


3E2 


Small, fan-shaped brown seaweeds (two species trfPrnftiw [P. commersonii . 
light-brown, and P. vickersiae , larger, darker-brown]), common on the reef, each 
fen more or fess split andourled. 'Uotca&n. 






joy weed tfttemanthera amoena ) torn Brazil 


PatftnQ cOmxnerSonii Bory, P. vlckersiae 


PAPAAKEA 


Doty 


6 










Liagora valida Harvey 


papaakea 


Sctchd] 


1L2 










Liagora vaJida Harvey 


plpa'akea 


Pukui 


316 


A seaweed (fJagora volida ), related to puakT. 








Liagora valida Harvey 


pa'fl-g-Hi'iaka 


Pukui 


321 


A kind orred seaweed wiih wide, thin thallus. Perhaps same as limu luTula. 


limu hft'whV? 




Jacqucmontia sandwicejuis; a variety pf tan?, good 
gray pot a variety of siv«t potato 




pi'ii-Q-Hi iakfl 


Pukui 


321 


Same as Icpe-o-Hina, a seaweed. 


lepe-o-Hina 




Jacquemontia sandwiceiisis; g variety of taro P good 
gray poi; a variety of sweet potato 


ffafymenittformasa Harvey ex Kiitting 


peepee 


Setohell 


112 


Maui name for aalaula. Lasts only one day, 


aalaula 








PEEPEE 


Doty 


6 


(Mam) AALAULA (Hawaii) 








CotUumMveikri Kuetzing 


pe'epe'e 


Pukui 


322 


Same as ITpe'epe'e, a seaweed. Maui. 


lipe'epe'e 








pe'cpc'e. limu 


Kaitm 


Interview 


Grows in. cracks, plenty down Maka'alae. Old kind has coral sometimes, so you 
skouMa't pick that one. 










PEKU 


Doty 


6 


(Chamberlain) 










pehu 


Pukai 


323 


A kind of seaweed. 






A variety of sweet potato 




pchu 


Seiche]] 


1*2 












pehu, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












pehu, Limu 


Kaina 


Enterview 


Lwksjust like kohu, except it flattens when taken out of the water. Doesn'lhave 
a strong smell like kohu and it tastes hot He knows of om guy that puts it inhU 
stew to give ji a hoi flavor- 










PEPE-AHINA 


Dory 


6 










Haiymemaformosa Harvey ex Kutzinff 


pepe-ahing. limu 


MacCaughey 
L917 


154 


Rare. 








Hofymeniaformosa Harvey ex Kutztng 



Appendix A; Liimi Database 
Paga 54 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOBRCE 


PACE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


PEPE-1A0 


Dory 


6 










Anumsia glomerata h&:,P<Miittapavon\a (L.) 
Gaill. 


pepcuw 


Sctcnell 


112 




pilipil&o'a 






Podinti paoonia (L.) Gaill. 


pepcaao, limu 


MacCaughey 
19! 7 


154 




limu ii-pepe-ieo 






Atnansia gtomtrata Ag. 


pepeiao, Unra 


feed 


86 




bmu upepciao 






Amtmsia glomerate Ag. 


pepeiao, limu 


Chamberlain 


n 












pepeiao, limu 


Pukui 


207 


Same aa Epepeiao. 


Kpepeiao 








PEPEULU 


Duly 


6 


(Chamberlain) 










pepeulu 


SeElKll 


113 












pepeulu, limn 


Cluunberliun 


32 












pftali 


Pukui 


329 


A seaweed. 










piliko'a 


Setchsll 


113 










Galaxaum lapidesiens (Soauid} Lotnx. 


piliko'a 


Pukui 


330 


A stiff kind of pakalakala, a seaweed Qaltaattra tapidescens } 






Hawkish, variety pf k6 


(Jotaxaura lapiaescens (Solaria 1 ) tamx. 


P1L1L0A 


Dory 


6 










Gtdaxaum lapidesceiv (Soland) Lamx 


P1L1PIL1K.0A 


Doty 


6 










Padlrta pavonla (L) Gaill. 


pilipiljko'a 


Sercheil 


113 




pepeiao 






Padlua pavonia (L.) Gaill. 


PlPlLAl-IA 


Doty 


7 










ttnieromofpka 


P1P1LANI 


Doty 


7 


(CnambejUin) 











Appendix A: Limu Database 
Paga 55 out of 5& 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATE* NAMES 


piptlani 


Setchell 


J l> 












plpflani 


Pukui 


332 


Some kinds of green seaweeds (species oSnttroiat?rpha),Iiiaai. Also ele'ele. 


ele'ele 


ALso'ele'ete. 




Eni&r&nx>rpha 


pipilani, limu 


Reed 


86,87 


On Maui it is sometimes cited limu pipUani 


limu clccle 






EnUromorphaflexuosa (Wulfen) J. Agardh £. 
hapkirkii Ag.. £■ intesttnalis (Lhinaeus) Lint 
E. Itnza (Linnaeus) J. Agardh, £ plutiuna 
(Mullet) 1 Agardh £ proiifera ™. tubuiosa 
Kuetz.. E . proiifera fMuller) I. Agarjh 


pipuaui, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












POHA 


Doty 


7 










Hy&OCfalhrUS COnCeUa&S Bor> 


poha 


Magrader 


47 










Hydrocfathna c/arhratus (C. Agardh) Howe 


poha 


SetdteLL 


1L3 


Eaten raw by natives. 








Hyttrocfoihrus canceitotus Bory 


poha 


Pukui 


334 


Same 39 pohlpqha, 


pohapoba, ITpohapoba 




cape goosebeny "pa'ina {Hawai'i) 


Oiciyoiphavtia cavernosa (Farsskal) Borgesen 


pohSpohS 


Putui 


335 


A non*ediblc, green, seaweed Qictyospkcwria cavernosa ), small, round, hollow, 
that bursts with a pop when stepped on. Also HpobSnoha, poha. 


llpohapoflS. poha 


Also Upohtpoha. poha: 


"running pop" Passi/lorafoetida 


Dictyosphattiti cavernosa {Foreskal} Bargemen 


POLAO 


Doty 


7 










Spirogyraspp, 


polao, limu 


Reed 


8£ 




Limn palawai, limu nehe 






Spiro&fra sp. (probably several) 


PUAKl 


Doty 


7 










angora decussata Mont. 


puflkl 


Pukui 


346 


A red scawtcd Qiagttradeatssala )^ somewhat calcified hut flexible, branched; 
not edible; related to pftpa akea 








Litigant d&cussQta Mont. 


pu-aki, limu 


MflcCaugliey 
1917 


149 


Considered ediMe. 








Liagora decussata Monl. 


puald,Iinm 


Re«f 


B7 


Grow near th? shore. 








Liagora decussata Mont. 


PUALU 


Doty 


7 










Pofysiphania mollis Hooker et Harvey ex Harvej 
1847 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Pago 56 out of 59 



LIMIT NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


pn*aJu, Lima 


MaeCaughey 
1917 


154 


ft is not popular,, and it is used by but few natives for food. 


Umghavi-anc 






Pofyaiphonia mollis Hooker at Harvey ex Harvej 
1847 


pualu, limu 


Reed 


88 


Used by but few Hawuiians for food; not popular 


limu hawaue 






Pofysiphania mollis Hooter cl Harvey ex Harvey 
1847 


POHA 


Doty 


7 










Coipomenia sinuosa (Roth] Derbes Ct Solicr 


puha 


Selchell 


L13 










Coipottenia sinuosa (Rtuhj Derbes cl Sober 


puha 


Masmder 


39 










Colpontenia sinuosa fRiilh) Derbes Cl Solicr 


puha 


Gannon 


Interview 


Seasonal limu that likes water flow (recognized from picture in Magrudcr book). 










puha 


Pukui 


348 


A brown seaweed fpoipomenia sinuosa ), cushion-sbaped, hollow, surface 
smooth and un-even; not eatea Cf. nafceke. 




Cf. uatefce 




Colpomeniasimiosa (Roth) Derbes et Solier 


pubuhihulu 


Puklli 


350 


Seme as mUu 'Tlio (pattraceras clavatum &. Ectocarpus spp. ), seaweeds. 


hulu Qjo 






Cemroceras clavatum &. Ectocarpus spp. 


pupukaneilio 


Setchell 


m 












pup ukan« ilia, limit 


ChaniberEain. 


32 












PUHJKARELlO 


Doty 


7 


(Chamberlain) 










R1MOU 


Doty 


7 


Les algttes marines et jlwviatiles (Gaudichaud). 










Rimou 


Gaudichaud 


148 


tes algues marines efftwviatites 










RIMOU-KALA 


Dory 


7 










Sargosnvn aaw-Jbllum er aquijoiiiun 


rimou-tala 


GaudicJuud 


143 










Sargassum cunefolium e! aqiafuliztnt 


RJMU 


Doty 


7 


r&hitian, Tuamotu. and Maori name for algae and similar substances. 










turtle liiau 


Kaing 


Interview 


Grera limu ftat grows down Hana Bay. 











I.~ 



I* 



5 

IS 

ii 



! 



if 

•a 1 

II 



J I 
II 




I 



I! 



li 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Pago 58 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


source. 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


WAWAEIOLE 


Doty 


7 










Codium Muellerl Kuetzing (Hawaii) 


nwaekte 


Setebell 


U3 




aalaula 






Codium Muelleri Kuetzing 


wiwse 1 iote 


Ms grader 


25 










Codiwn edule Sitva 


wflwae 1 iofe 


Pukui 


3R2 


Oiler, analysts call wfiwae iole, Codium edule, and list 'a'ala-'ula and Wnla as 
viriani names. Some equate nuliduilii-*- iole and hold.' iole with wawa&iole 




Also huJuhalu-a*'iale and 
hulu'iole 




Codiwn edule Silva 


fvawnciole 


Ew alike 


Audio 


Aia no i wflhg/ A'ole makemake i ka mea pae tnai. Ki'i i kamea, aia no ma laila 

'A'ole maika'i ka mw numii loa. to mea raakalii huh nfl. 'O ka mea makali'i ma 

kameaheluri:ahi.Pipiliita'akoatD'fl. 

"Hana 'oe mc ka ma^ema'e, hi no oe nw ka ma'ema'e, "Vole kapulu" Lawe 1 

kalnnikai a bo'okomo ka wSwaeic-le, man nO k<j kSi'i, Vole pslupaly. PahipaU 

i ka waimaoli. Ini "ao!e kai, pa'akai, kflpl a miko r 


MVahVuia 








wawac'iole 


Kanta 


Interview 


Hj5na mostly las the kind that lies flat on the rocks, noi the one thai branches 
upright from the sand and sways. 










wgwac'iolc 


Gannon 


[nieTview 


Recognized From picture in Magrudei book. 










waivae-wie, limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


J42 


This species is called limu a-da-ula and also on Hawai" i, limu wawae-iole and 
wowae-moa 


limu a*ala*ula, limu wawae-moa 






CeniwmMuetleri Kuetzing 


wawae-iole, limu 


MacCaughey 
1916 


476 


"the mouse-foot limiT 








Codmm&futHeri Kuetzing 


wawaeiole, Haiti 


Reed 


86 




limu aallauta, limu wawaimoa 






Codiwn Muellers Kuetzing 


wawaeiole, limu 


Simpson 














uBiA-acifile. limu 


Kcohokalofe 


Video: 
AM 


Has alHau'ula. 










wawKM0Je.lirn.11 


Abbon 1996 


13, IS 


Clcaned in sett water, then in fresh water and pounded. Add sail. Ho'ohul Ma me 
sa lipe'epe'fl i kekahi manawa. 


Ala'ula, ValaMila (Maui) & a'ala 
(Kauai) for prepared limu, 
tiulu'iole (obsolete), wEwaemoa 
(ohsolclc) 






Codium edule Silva 


WAWAE-MOA 


Doty 


7 










(Hawaii) Codiwn Mueileri Kuetzing 


wawae-maa, limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


142 




limu wawae-iole limu a-ala-ula 






Codium Mt/elteri Kuetzing 


WA-WAHT-WAA 


Dory 


7 










Cfmoospora faslsgata pacifica J. Ag. 



9 



f 



Appendix B: List of Limu Names 



1 . aaki 

aalaula* 

aalii 

ai-a-ka-honu*** 

akaakoa*** 

akala*** 

akiaki* 

akiula 

akoakoa 

akuila 

alaalaula*** 

alani* 

alaula 

alolo 

anapanapa 

+** 
apeepee 

*+* 
aupupu 

awaawa 

awikiwiki*** 

ehau 

ekaha*** 

ekahakaha 

eleau" 

eleele 

eleele-kai 

eleele maoli* 

eloelo 

elula 

_ *** 
nana 

haula 

haulelani*** 

hawane 

hinakea*** 

hinaula*** 

holoawai*** 

holomoku 

hona 

honu 

hoonunu 

huahuakai*** 

huai 

hulu"* 

huluhulu"* 

huluhuluwaena* 

huluhulu wahine 

huluhulu-a-iole** 



hulu ii 

hulu manu*** 

hulu moa"* 

hulu puaa*** 

hulu ilio*** 

hulu wawae-iole 

huna*** 

hune 

hunehune 

hupekohola 

huwae 

ihau 

ii 

iliau 

ilio 

iliohaa 

kahakala 

kahili** 

ka-kanaka* 

kala* 

kalalauliilii* 

kalalaunuinui* 

kalawai"* 

kalipoa 

kanaloa 

kaunaoa*** 

kaunoa 

kaupau*** 

kekuwelu 

kele 

kihe 

kikala 

kiki 

kimau 

kipa-akai 

koele" 

koeleele 

kohu 

koiale 

koko 

koloa 

kukae-o-Kamapuaa* 

kukaepueo 

kulapepeiao"* 

kumulimukala 

kumulipoa 



kuwelu 

laau kanaka*** 

lehelehe ilio*** 

lepe-o-Hina* 

lepelepe-o-Hina 

lepeahina* 

leponalo 

likolehua 

limanamana*** 

_ , * + * 

limoa 

lipaakai* 

lipaha*** 

lipahapaha 

lipahapala 

lipahee* 

lipaheehee 

lipahoe"* 

lipakai 

lipalahalaha* 

lipalao 

lipalawai 

lipalu 

_ . *** 

lipaoaoa 

lipee* 

lipeepee* 

lipehe* 

lipehu 

lipepe 

lipepeiao 

lipewale 

lipoa* 

lipohapoha*** 

lipupu 

lipuu 

lipuula 

lipuupuu 

loloa 

luau* 

lupe 

maka 

makaloa 

make* 

make-o-Hana* 

makua-o-ka-limu-kohu* 

manaiea 

manauea 



Limu names that have been associated with actual limu through previous studies. 

Limu names that have been associated with actual limu through this study. 

Limu names that have information but the association with actual limu has not been 

documented. 



Appendix B: List of Limu Names 



maneoneo 

manu 

mauauwea 

mawaewae 

mawaewae kilihune 

menauea 

moa 

moopuna*" 

moopuna-a-ka-lipoa"* 

moopuna-o-limu-kala* 

mualea* 

nahawele"* 

naio 

nakeke 

**+ 
nanea 

*** 
nanoo 

nanue 

nanui 

ne 

nehe 

nei 

nohoraahe 

nua 

oaoaka*** 

ohiohio 

ohune 

okala 

okupe 

olipeepee 

oohiea 

oolu* 

opai 

opihx 

ouri 

owakawaka 

paakai* 

paakaiea 

pacaya 

pahapaha 

pahapaha-o-Polihale* 

pahapaha wai*** 

pahee* 

paheehee 

paka-ea 

pakaeleawaa* 

pakaiea* 



pakalakala 

pakeleawaa 

pakepake 

pakoa 

pakolekole 

pakupaku*** 

palahalaha* 

palahaloha 

palapahakou 

palapohaku 

palao 

palaula 

palawai 

palewawae"* 

papaakea*** 

pau-o-Hiiaka*" 

peepee* 

pehu** 

pepe-ahina 

pepeiao 

pepe-o-Hina 

pepeulu 

pilali 

pilikoa*" 

pilipilikoa 

pipilana 

pipilani*** 

poha 

pohapoha 

polao 

puaki 

pualu*** 

puna 

puhuluhulu*** 

pupukaneilio 

rimou-kala 

uaualoli*** 

ula*** 

ulaula 

unele 

upi 

wawaeiole 

wawaemoa 

wawaimoa 

229.wawahiwaa* 



Limu names that have been associated with actual limu through previous studies. 

Limu names that have been associated with actual limu through this study. 

Limu names that have information but the association with actual limu has not been 

documented. 



Appendix C: Personal Information Sheet 

Personal Information from the people who talked to me about 
limu. 



Full Name: 
Date of Birth: 
Place of Birth: 
Address : 



Phone Number: 

Where you were brought up: 



Occupation/what you do (fish, farm, etc.) 



Who taught you about limu? 



Where this person (these people) is/ are from? 



If you had to put an origin on where your knowledge about 
limu is from, where would that be? (South Kona, Kihei, 
Hana, etc. ) 



Appendix D: List of Voucher Specimens 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


VOUCHER NUMBER 


LATIN NAMES 


limu kohu 


Kaina 


KA002LIMU 


Asparagopsis taxiformis 
(Delile) Trevisan 


nei 


Kaina 


KA028LIMU 


Ahnfeltiopsis 

/label liformis (Harvey) 

Masuda 


iliau 


Kaina 


KA034LIMU 


Ahnfeltiopsis concinna (J. 
Agardh) Silva et DeCew 


limu manauea 


Anamizu 


KA059LIMU 


Gmcilaria coronopifolia 
J. Agardh 


wawae'iole 


Kaina 


KA060LIMU 


Cod'ium arabicum 
Kiitzing 


limu kohu 


Howard 


KA061LIMU 


Asparagopsis taxiformis 
(Delile) Trevisan 


limu "ele'ele 


Howard 


KA062LIMU 


Enteromorpha prolifera 
(Muller) J. Agardh 


limu palahalaha 


Howard 


KA063LIMU 


Ulvafasciata Delile 


ko'ele'ele, ko'ele 


Howard 


KA064LIMU 


Ahnfeltiopsis 
flabelliformis (Harvey) 
Masuda 


limu huluhuluwaena 


Howard 


KA065LIMU 


Grateloupiafilicina 
(Lamoroux) C. Agardh 


limu kala 


Howard 


KA066LIMU 


Sargassum echinocarpum 
J. Agardh 


limu'akTaki 


Howard 


KA067LIMU 


Ahnfeltiopsis concinna (J. 
Agardh) Silva et DeCew 


llpe'epe'e 


Howard 


KA068LIMU 


Laurencia sp. 



Appendix E: Supplemental Information - Audio 

Recording References 

Ah Nee, Esther. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.284B. 

Akau, William. 1969. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW207.10.2. 

Ako, Annie Tripp. 1963. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 

Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW135.1.2. 

Almeida, John Kameaaloha. 1970. Mary Kawena Pukui 

Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW62.2.5. 

Aubrey, Bertha Meyer. 1961. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW107.11.2. 

Benanua, Rebecca Kauila. 1963. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW142.2.2. 

Char, Kaulana. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai^i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.180B. 

Dudoit, Maurice. 1961. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW108.8.1. 

Duvauchelle, Waldemar. 1961. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW107.14.2. 

Ewaliko, Elizabeth. Ka Leo Hawai^i. University of Hawai^i 
at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.90A. 

Ewaliko, Elizabeth. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai^i 
at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.233A. 

Ewaliko, Elizabeth Leinaala Bungo. 1959. Mary Kawena Pukui 
Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW50.1.2. 



Appendix E: Supplemental Information - Audio 

Recording References 

Ewaliko, Elizabeth Leinaala Bungo. 1959. Mary Kawena Pukui 
Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW50.1.3. 

Ewaliko, Elizabeth Leinaala Bungo. 1959 Mary Kawena Pukui 
Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW50.2.3. 

Gonsalves, Margrett. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai'i 
at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.367. 

Haanio, Mary Ahio. 1960. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW106.2.2. 

Haia, Elizabeth. 1963. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW137.6.1. 

Harbottle, Katherine Makena. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of 
Hawai""i at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.365. 

Hayes, Flora Kaai. 1963. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW143.1.1. 

Johnson, Rachel Kinney. 1964. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW157.1.2. 

Kaalakea, Kawika. Ka Leo Hawai^i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.178A. 

Kaalekahi, Henry. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.410. 

Kaiawe, George. 1963. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW147.4.2. 

Kaleleiki, Lokalia. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai'i 
at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.64B. 



Appendix E: Supplemental Information - Audio 

Recording References 

Kamaka, Robert Palakiko Sr. 1961. Mary Kawena Pukui 

Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW120.6.1. 

Kamalani, Jonah. Ka Leo Hawai^i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.53B. 

Kaui, Papa. Ka Leo Hawai"i. University of Hawai'i at Manoa: 
Moore Hall. Reel HV24.202AB. 

Kaui, Papa. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai*"i at Manoa: 
Moore Hall. Reel HV24.208AB. 

Kauka, Kaipo. 1965. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW168.1.3. 

Kaupu, Edward K. Sr. 1961. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW108.11.2. 

Kawelo, Hilda Hoohila Manuia. 1963. Mary Kawena Pukui 
Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW152.1.1. 

Keawe, David. Ka Leo Hawai^i. University of Hawai^i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.412. 

Keohokalole, Emma. Ka Leo Hawai^i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.303. 

Kenui, Carrie Kaaelani. 1968. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW20 0.2.1. 

Kondo, Yoshio. 1969. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW221.3.1. 

Lupenui, Muriel. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.101A. 



Appendix E: Supplemental Information - Audio 

Recording References 

Lupenui, Muriel K. 1966. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW197.2. 

Mahuiki, Rachael. Ka Leo Hawai^i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.14. 

Makaai, Joe. Ka Leo Hawai^i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.323. 

Makuakane, Elizabeth Keaweaheulu Kahoopii. 1965. Mary 

Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 
Library. HAW168.10. 

Marciel, Josephine Kealoha. 1960. Mary Kawena Pukui 

Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW85.7.1. 

Medeiros, Josephine Kauakeaohana Roback. 1960. Mary Kawena 
Pukui Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW87.4.1. 

Mikasobe, Lucy. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai^i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.104B. 

Mikasobe, Lucy. Ka Leo Hawai"i. University of Hawai^i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.200B. 

Namauu, Rose, Analu, and Alice Namakelua. Ka Leo Hawai'i. 
University of Hawai^i at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel 
HV24.97AB. 

Naoo, Sarah Wahinekaapuni . 1961. Mary Kawena Pukui 

Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW107.1.1. 

Pu, Joseph. 1960. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAWS 7. 1.1. 



Appendix E: Supplemental Information - Audio 

Recording References 

Sanborn, Winifred Kalei Saffery. 1960. Mary Kawena Pukui 
Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW84.6.1. 

Tanaka, Maruki. 1963. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW137.2.1. 

Tanaka, Maruki. 1963. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW137.2.2, 

Waialeale, Edith Kaleimomi. 1963. Mary Kawena Pukui 

Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW147.7.1. 

Westmoreland, Esther. Ka Leo Hawai~"i. University of Hawai^i 
at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.345. 

Whit ford, Minnie. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.354. 



IKE KUUNA LIMU: LEARNING ABOUT HAWAII'S LIMU 



A REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT 

OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF 

MASTER OF SCIENCE 

IN 

BOTANICAL SCIENCES (BOTANY) 

NOVEMBER 2003 



By 
Kamaui Aiona 



Thesis Committee: 

Will McClatchey, Chairperson 

Isabella Aiona Abbott 

Charles Langlas 



We certify that we have read this thesis and that, in our 
opinion, it is satisfactory in scope and quality as a 
thesis for the degree of Master of Science in Botany. 



THESIS COMMITTEE 



Mu 



YL 



Chairperson 



%.Lefi 0. Q^dJTt — • 




n 



NO KUU LEI PAKALANA NANA I KAKOO 
A PAIPAI NUI MAI IAU MA KEIA PAHANA NUI 



ill 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

He mahalo keia mai ko^u naau mai i ka nui poe i kokua 
mai iau ma keia pahana. No ka nui loa o ko lakou aloha a 
hoomanawanui iau i paa pono ai keia hua a kakou e nanea ai . 
He hoao haahaa wale no keia pahana no ka hoopaa ana i 
kekahi ike kuuna mai kupuna mai. I kokua liilii wale no 
keia pepa i na hanauna e hiki mai ana no ka hoonaauao ia ma 
na ikena Hawaii. ka mea nui ma ka hoonaauao ia, ma ka 
hana no ka ike. I mea e paa pono ai ka ike ilina a na 
kupuna, e imi i ke kumu, o ia hoi ke kupuna, a e hahai aku 
ma ke ala maa i ka hele ia. 

Makemake wale no au e hoohanohano ae i na inoa o 
kekahi poe nana i alakai mai. kuu ohana, mai kuu mau 
kupuna a i kuu mau makua a i kuu mau hiapo a pokii, a me 
kuu wahine a me kuu keiki i aloha nui ia, ia lakou a pau 
ko~u aloha a mahalo nui palena ole. ka"u mau kumu ma ka"u 
komike, o ia hoi o Will McClatchey, Isabella Aiona Abbott, 
me Kale Langlas. lakou me kuu wahine ke kumu i holomua ai 
keia pahana a hiki loa mai i ka hua. Ke haawi aku nei au i 
ko"u mahalo i ka nui poe i komo ma keia pahana, a lilo hoi 

iv 



i mau kumu a hoaaloha no"u: Anakala Eddy Kaanana, Uncle 
Blondie Joseph Kaina, Uncle Wilfred Kala, Uncle Sam Ah 
Quin, Grandma Daisy Lind, Uncle John Lind me Aunty Tweetie 
Lind, Uncle Harry Hueu, Ipo Wong, Anakala Kawika 
Kapahulehua, Uncle Abe Manuia, Mrs. Geanette Howard, Aunty 
Ulu Garmon. . . 

A mahalo hoi i na oihana i kakoo mai iau ma ka imi 
naauao ma ke kulanui. Ina i hoolako ole mai ke Kula o 
Kamehameha, ka "Aha Punana Leo, ka Hawai'i Community 
Foundation, ka Beatrice Krauss Scholarship, a ia mea aku, 
aole paha au i puka ma ke kulanui. 

Aole au poina i kuu mau kakoo, o ia hoi na hoapili ma 
ka papahele eono a me na hoa e ae i paipai nui mai iau e 
hoopau i keia pahana. Aole au e helu i na inoa o hina hou 
kekahi kumulaau. Mahalo a nui loa ia oukou a pau loa. 

A, e huikala mai ina ua hala paha kekahi inoa iau. A 
pela no na hemahema o loko o keia pahana a"u. He kanaka 
wale no au, a hemahema ke kanaka i kekahi manawa. 



ABSTRACT 

Limu, especially the edible marine algae, play an 
important part in Hawaiian culture. Limu has nutritional, 
spiritual, and social value for Hawaiians. Over 200 
different Hawaiian names of limu have been documented. 
Positive scientific identification for most of these names, 
however, is lacking. By meeting and talking with a variety 
of limu-knowledgeable peoples, a great deal of information 
was recorded. Positive identifications as well as uses for 
some of these limu have been documented and recorded as a 
resource for future generations. The limu database, 
constructed as a part of this research, contains 
information from published sources, audio and video 
recordings, and personal interviews conducted for this 
thesis. This database should be considered a launching 
point for future research and not a completed work. It is 
expected that the work will continue as new generations 
learn more and more. 



VI 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

SIGNATURE PAGE ii 

DEDICATION iii 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv 

ABSTRACT vi 

TABLE OF CONTENTS *. vii 

PREFACE viii 

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION 1 

Goals 1 

Hypotheses . . 2 

CHAPTER 2 : LIMU STUDIES IN HAWAI^ I 4 

What is Limu? 4 

Studies on Hawaiian Limu Names 5 

Gathering Limu 13 

Preparing Limu 16 

Cultivating Limu 20 

CHAPTER 3 : METHODS 23 

Database Compilation 23 

Interviews 25 

Herbarium Voucher Construction 29 

Equipment 30 

Limu List Construction 31 

CHAPTER 4 : RESULTS 32 

Informants 32 

Data 35 

Table 1 36 

Discussion . 49 

CHAPTER 5 : CONCLUSION 59 

References 63 

Appendix A: Limu Database 

Appendix B: List of Limu Names 

Appendix C: Personal Information Sheet 

Appendix D: List of Voucher Specimens 

Appendix E: Supplemental Information - Audio Recording References 



vn 



PREFACE 

Choosing to write a paper about limu was never 
something that I dreamt about. How I got to this point in 
my life is cumulative and not very easy to explain . 

I learned from a young age, admiring my grandparents, 
parents, and older brother that hard, outdoor work is very 
rewarding. Something about working on the land just felt 
right, like coming home. I took up Hawaiian language in 
high school and continued in college at U.H. Hilo even 
though I was aiming for a business degree. Hawaiian came 
easy to me and it, too, somehow fit. While being bored to 
death by my economics classes, a required core class 
captured my attention. Botany 153 taught by Dr. Don Hemmes 
focused an instinctual love for nature to an excitement 
about plants. I had already realized that business was not 
my bag and I would eventually go on to graduate with 
degrees in Hawaiian Studies and Natural Sciences with a 
minor in Biology. 

I entered graduate school at U.H. Manoa only because 
my wife was going to pursue her masters on O'ahu. Botany 

viii 



was the obvious choice because of my passion for Hawaiian 
plants and my knack for botany as a science. The class that 
set me in the direction of learning about limu was a 
phycology class taught by Dr. Celia Smith. Though an 
excellent class about Hawaiian algae, it was what was 
lacking from that class and the general field of phycology 
that challenged me towards studying limu. I was learning 
about hundreds of species of Hawaiian algae, only a few 
dozen of which I could confidently call by a Hawaiian name 
{thanks entirely to the ethnophycological studies conducted 
by Dr. Isabella Aiona Abbott). However, I began to take 
notice, especially from Pukui's Hawaiian Dictionary, of an 
abundance of Hawaiian limu names with little to no 
description and no recorded positive identification. There 
was my task. 

I eventually migrated to the sixth floor of the St. 
John Plant Science Building to be closer to the local 
students who congregated in some lab space up there. Of 
course, Dr. Abbott was also located on the sixth floor and 
in fact, is the main reason why these students were up 

ix 



there in the first place. She, being a Hawaiian, had 
converted these students to phycology, and so I had just 
moved into "Limu Grand Central . " Everything was in place , 
and it was only a matter of time before I, too, found 
myself floating in the world of ethnophycology. 

Throughout the years , whether it be planting sweet 
potato on the farm as a young boy, to conversing in 
Hawaiian as a high school teen, to participating in 
retreats in Waipi'o Valley as a young adult in college, 
there were defining times that fueled the eternal fire 
inside of me to design my future by pursuing the past, my 
heritage. It's kind of like those stories of taking 
troubled Hawaiian teens and putting them in a Hawaiian 
environment, traditional sailing or in the taro patch, and 
watching them flourish and excel. Whether it's spiritual, 
guidance from the unseen, or it's just a knack we have, 
Hawaiians are drawn to their heritage. Why am I writing a 
paper about limu? I say it's because I'm Hawaiian. 

There is a dark side to this story as well. It has to 
do with an internal struggle and is part of the reason why 



it's year 2003 and I'm still doing something I started in 
1998. It has to do with the clash that sometimes occurs 
between scientific methods and Hawaiian culture, between 
indigenous property rights and the power that comes with 
the culturally inconsistent use of this knowledge, and the 
incompatibility between some parts of western and 
traditional cultures. Above all of these issues, however, 
was my own personal culture and my fear of writing 
something that was wrong, or incomplete, or arrived at in a 
culturally inappropriate way, or just culturally 
unacceptable altogether. There were and are still times 
when I feel like I shouldn't have embarked on this process 
and that I shouldn't submit this paper as a thesis for fear 
of what the repercussions might be. I don't know what the 
value of this work will be for others, but I do know that 
it was the process from which I learned the most. Having 
said all of this, I hope the reader has gained a little 
insight into my feelings about this paper and that it will 
be taken, like most things should be, with a grain of salt. 



XI 



CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 

Goals 

There are a few main goals for this research. The 
first is to review the literature and compile a 
comprehensive database of Hawaiian limu names from various 
sources. This database will provide a foundation of 
knowledge to which I will add new names and information. 
This database can prove a valuable resource for people 
interested in Hawaiian limu names and uses. 

The second goal of this research is to meet with and 
learn from people who have knowledge of Hawaiian limu names 
and uses. Documenting this information will add information 
to the existing base and shed new light on contradictory 
records. With sound ethnobotanical methods, limu names and 
the sources of these names can be linked to limu specimens. 1 

To understand, appreciate, and perpetuate culture it 
is essential to learn from living people, not just from 



1 The value of this research lies in the permanent documentation of 
"new" limu information, such as names, identification, and uses that 
have never been documented before. From one generation to the next 
there is a loss of information. Documenting this information before it 
is "taken to the grave" is a desperate mission that is being undertaken 
in many cultural disciplines. 



historical records. By learning about limu from these 
people, I will be able to perpetuate my culture by 
identifying, gathering, and preparing limu for my own 
family. 



Hypotheses 

1) There are still people remaining who can recognize and 

identify many Hawaiian limu. 



2) Categories of limu knowledge that still exist include 
(not exclusively): 

a. Hawaiian names of limu 

b. Uses of limu (edible, medicinal, ceremonial, none, 
etc. ) 

c. Collection and preparation methods 

d. Conservation practices 

e. Distributions (past and present) 

f. Myths, folklore, interesting anecdotes, etc. 



3) People from different areas will have a varying range of 
limu knowledge consistent with their home area. 



4 ) There are people who have in the past and who currently 
still cultivate limu. 



CHAPTER 2: LIMU STUDIES IN HAWAII 



What is limu? 



"limu. 1. A general name for all kinds of plants 
living under water, both fresh and salt, also 
algae growing in any damp place in the air, as on 
the ground, on rocks, and on other plants; also 
mosses, liverworts, lichens. See saying, hailepo. 
Ua ulu ka limu, the seaweed (pubic hairs) are 
growing. (PPN limu,) 2. vs. Tricky, deceiving, 
unstable ( said to be named for the octopus ' 
ability to change its color, and its waving of a 
tentacle to and fro like the motion of a seaweed 
in water). 3. n. Wind gust. Rare. 4. n. Coil, 
curl. Rare. 5. n. Soft coral" (Pukui & Elbert 
1986). 



The term limu is considered the general name for 
aquatic to semi-aquatic life forms with a similar shape or 
form. For distinct limu with utilitarian properties, 
another specific name is applied in order to better 
distinguish between the vast amount of life forms that fall 
under the heading of "limu." This second name is usually a 
descriptive adjective {i.e., limu wawae^iole or "rats foot" 
limu) or sometimes a suffix to the contracted form of limu 
which is " 1I-" {i.e., llpepeiao, limu pepeiao, or "ear" 
limu) (Pukui & Elbert 1986, Reed 1907). This system, for 



the most part, is not different from the modern scientific 
system of binomial nomenclature which uses a generic name 
and a specific epithet (Doty 1957). As expected, this is 
not an uncommon system for cultures to classify and name 
their plants (Berlin 1992). When explaining to children 
this common and natural process of naming plants, I like to 
compare it to giving our children two names , a last name 
that perpetuates the relationship to the family and a 
unique name that sets the child apart. Except for the 
occasional "junior" this is usually a well-received 
analogy. 



Studies of Hawaiian limu names 

In comparison to the numerous scientific studies done 
on Hawaiian marine algae (see Abbott 1999), there are 
relatively few that have concentrated on the Hawaiian names 
and/or ethnobotanical uses for these limu. These studies 
are reviewed below in chronological order of publication. 

Charles Gaudichaud (1826) was the first to publish 
information on Hawaiian algae. During his visit to the 



islands he recorded the words rimou [limu), pacaya, ouri, 
and rimou-kala with Latin names for the last three. 2 
Interestingly, his spelling of the words reflects an older 
version of the Hawaiian language that he encountered (where 
a "Hawaiian 'r'" is used in the place of a more 
contemporary * 1 * ) . 

Lorrin Andrews' dictionary (1974) which was first 
published in 1865 provides a list of Hawaiian limu names 
under the term limu. This list is made up of 26 names 
without any descriptions. 3 Included within the definition of 
limu is the interesting statement that Hawaiians "class the 



limu among fish. 



,i 



2 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Gaudichaud 

3 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Andrews 

4 Definition of limu can be found in the Appendix under the heading LIMU 
NAME: limu and SOURCE: Andrews. This statement is corroborated by the 
following riddle: "Ku~u wahi i~a ^a~ole ona na~au, a he keu na'e kona 
ola, a "ono ke "ai "la, a makemake nui "ia e na ali "i a me na 

maka " ainana . Ka limu." "My little fish without entrails, but alive, is 
very good to eat, and is greatly desired by chiefs and common people. 
The seaweed." (Judd 1930). The phrase "~ ai me ka i "a" is the Hawaiian 
analogy of the English phrase "meat and potatoes." "Ai which refers to 
poi or kalo {Colocasia esculenta) and i ~a which literally means fish 
but refers to just about anything that is eaten with the poi or kalo. 
Using this general theme, many food products may also be classified 
with i "a. 



J. E. Chamberlain published a paper in 1881 which gave 
a list of 64 Hawaiian names. 5 This list was taken from 
Andrews' dictionary and "other sources" which are not 
named. These names, as the ones provided by Andrews, do not 
include descriptions or Latin names. 

Josephine Tilden (1905) published a paper about her 
adventures collecting algae in Hawai'i. Within this paper 
she mentions two Hawaiian names, aalaula and kala along 
with Latin names for both. 6 

Dr. William Setchell of the University of California 
published a paper entitled "Limu" in 1905. This account is 
based on his visits to several areas in the islands and 
informal interviews with several Hawaiian informants . He 
compiled an annotated list of 106 Hawaiian limu names. 7 
Included within this list of limu are some descriptive 
information, meanings of names, notes on usage, and the 
sources who provided him the information. This publication 



5 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Chamberlain. 

6 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Tilden. 

7 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Setchell. 



includes Latin names for certain limu, though no voucher 
specimens are cited. 

Minnie Reed, a teacher at the Kamehameha Schools, 
published her three year study of limu in 1907. She mainly 
collected her information through friends, students, and 
informal interviews with people at markets and beaches . 
Through these acquaintances she was able to accumulate 
specimens of many different types of edible limu with their 
Hawaiian names. Scientific determinations of the specimens 
were made by herself and by Dr. Setchell. In all, she 
identified a total of 70 species of algae under the 
category of edible limu. 5 She recognized that "not more than 
forty are in general use" and "the other thirty or thirty- 
five are used only by a few people in certain small areas 
where they are found in limited quantities . " These numbers 
are probably conservative given Reed ' s statement that 
"almost every kind of seaweed that could possibly be eaten 
was used for food by some Hawaiians. " (Reed 1907) Abbott 



Although referred here as 70 distinct species, subsequent taxonomic 
work has renamed and reclassified many of these taxa. These 70 names 
are listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Reed. 



(1992) agrees that Hawaiians, out of all Pacific islanders, 
ate the most diverse range of limu species. 

Dr. Vaughan MacCaughey of the College of Hawai'i 
compiled two annotated lists of Hawaiian algae in 1918. 
While these lists of Hawaiian genera did not specifically 
aim to record ethnobotanical data, Hawaiian names and some 
information were provided for 33 economically valued limu. 9 
He recognized this exclusion of ethnobotanical data and did 
not intend for his list to be complete in any regard. 

D. M. Kaaiakamanu and J. K. Akina were two employees 
of the Board of Health who compiled information on the 
Hawaiian medicinal values of plants. First published in 
1922, this collection includes 20 limu entries, 10 of which 
are seaweeds, and the remaining 10 are either freshwater 
algae, mosses, liverworts, or lichens. 10 

Marie Neal (1930) produced a study on Hawaiian marine 
algae that did not focus on Hawaiian names or 



9 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: MacCaughey. 



10 



Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Kaaiakamanu. 



ethnobotanical uses. However, she did report 20 Hawaiian 
names with corresponding Latin names. 11 

In 1940, Dr. E. S. Handy published the first volume of 
The Hawaiian Planter. This book, though it focused on 
Hawaiian terrestrial horticulture and ethnobotany, did 
include a ceremonial use and a riddle for limu kala. 12 

Dr. Isabella Abbott published a study on brackish- 
water algae in 1947. Within this study, she reports the 
Hawaiian names of five limu along with the Latin generic 
names . 13 

Harvey Miller produced a document that remains 
unpublished but can be found at the Bernice Pauahi Bishop 
Museum {1951). His study is basically a literature review 
that compiles Hawaiian limu names and corresponding Latin 
names when available. This compilation drew from 12 
published resources and has been a great help to me in my 
efforts of continuing this type of research. 



11 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Neal. 

12 This ceremonial use and riddle is included in Appendix A under 
SOURCE: Handy. 

" Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Abbott 1947. 



10 



Not long after Miller, Dr. Maxwell Doty put out his 
own compilation of Hawaiian limu names with Latin 
counterparts (1957). 14 He stated that many of the 
scientific names cited had changed, even at that time. His 
compilation drew from nine published resources, all of 
which are included in Miller's study. 

In 1974, Dr. Isabella Abbott published an 
ethnobotanical study of limu (revised in 1996). Abbott 
reviewed the lists prepared by Reed and Doty, and found 
that perhaps 63 are indeed algae and thought to be edible. 
Of these 63, she narrowed the number of edible limu which 
can be determined consistently by the Hawaiian and Latin 
name to 29. Her study concentrated on 14 of the most common 
edible limu during that time. 15 Abbott (1996) reported 
different categories of limu that are based on the 
experiences of her mother's and those of other informants. 
The categories are distinguised as follows: 1) limu with a 
common name that are known and can be identified, 2) limu 
without a common name that are edible (the name is lost 



" Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Doty. 
15 Listed in Appendix A under SOURCE: Abbott. 



11 



perhaps ) , and 3 ) limu without a common name and not edible , 
or "opala (rubbish). 

From the Henriques-Peabody {date unknown) collection 
housed at the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, comes an 
unpublished document titled "Names of Hawaiian birds, shore 
fauna, and seaweeds." This list contains 44 Hawaiian limu 
names with no other information. 

Lastly, a somewhat enigmatic resource exists as an old 
cardboard box that contains over a hundred 8X5 index cards, 
on which are hand-recorded Hawaiian limu names , sources of 
information, and some other information. They do not 
reference any Latin names . These cards are the compilation 
of Dr. Elizabeth Woust Brown a former professor at the 
College of Education, University of Hawai'i at Manoa. They 
now rest on the corner of Dr. Abbott's desk at the 
University of Hawai'i at Manoa. 



12 



Gathering limu 16 

It is generally recognized that in Hawai'i, older 
women are the knowledgeable bunch when it comes to limu 
matters (Chamberlain 1881, Setchell 1905). This is true 
because limu gathering is generally done by women who wade 
out into the water when the tide is low (Reed 1907, 
Setchell 1905). 

Limu gathering is done in various ways depending on 
the type of limu and where and how it grows . 17 Limu 
gathering was generally done by women and children, except 
when extra help was needed to reach the limu in rougher , 
deep waters (Reed 1907). They could often be found wading 
out on the reef flats in the low tide, gathering the 
desired limu (Abbott 1992, Reed 1907). While gathering 
limu, bits of undesirable limu were separated and discarded 
along with any adhering bits of grit or sand (Reed 1907). 
The remaining desired limu were put into sacks, pails, or 



16 Information presented here reflects the observations and experiences 
of those who published papers . It is also important to remember that 
information reflects slices of time in which they worked and not 
necessarily the pre-contact era. 

17 Abbott (1996) provides brief descriptions of collecting methods for 
14 commonly eaten species of limu. 

13 



any other kind of suitable receptacle (Reed 1907). Some 
limu detaches from the substrate 18 and is easily collected 
when floating in the water or cast ashore in the drift 
(Abbott 1996, MacCaughey 1916, Reed 1907). 

In the instance where a boat was needed, a group of 
women and men would go out and the women would collect 
while the men would fish. 

Certain limu that remain attached to the substrate 
require a more active form of gathering, which brings up an 
interesting question. That is, which is (are) the proper 
method(s) of collecting attached limu? Reed (1907) reports 
that sharpened iron scraps or old knives were used to 
"scrape the seaweed from the coral or rocks." This would be 
especially true for limu uaualoli, limu kohu, limu aalaula, 



13 In my experiences , certain localities tend to have a specific set of 
limu that are stirred up by the oceans actions and are washed ashore in 
the drift. While it is obvious that this phenomenon is dependent on the 
types of limu that grow in each locality, there are other factors that 
are involved. For example, at two different beaches that both have limu 
kohu, I have seen it in the drift at one of the beaches but never in 
the drift at the other. I believe that local currents, wave action, and 
underwater topography are a few reasons why drift content can vary so 
much between localities that have the same limu. This makes it hard to 
group limu into general categories of drift-collected limu and attached 
limu. In order for this to be done properly, it must be done on a 
location by location basis. 



14 



limu lipoa, limu luau, limu akiaki, and limu lipeepee, 
whose holdfasts are especially strong (Reed 1907 ). 19 
Abbott's (1996) report concurs that limu lu"au (Porphyra 
vietnamensis Tanaka et Pham, Reed - limu luau) does require 
scraping from the rock substrate, but differs when it comes 
to the collection of limu kohu (Asparagopsis taxiformis 
(Delile) Trevisan). Abbott reported that "'seed* is left by 
Hawaiians by never taking the creeping portions." In an 
interview conducted by Mary Kawena Pukui with a few women 
(Winifred Sanborn, Alice Aki, and others) about the limu 
pakeleawa^a {Grateloupia filicina (Lamouroux) C. Agardh) , 
they emphatically stated that one should not uproot limu 
during gathering as it is considered " hana ^ino" or careless 
mistreatment (Pukui 1960). It is unclear if this attitude 
was reflecting the specific collections of limu pakeleawa "a 
or general limu gathering practice. 

From the same interview, it was also brought forth 
that during her menstrual period, it was forbidden for the 



19 The spelling of these limu are as found in Reed's treatise. 
Scientific names were not included due to the numerous taxonomic 
changes that have since occurred. Appendix A provides taxonomic and 
additional information extracted from each source . 



15 



woman to enter the ocean, thus restricting her from 
gathering limu ("pe"a ka wahine. . . haumia, . . "a"ole komo i 
ke kal ") . 



Preparing limu 

As expected, preparation varies greatly from one limu 
to the next. Adding to this variation are the preferences 
of people from different areas. Despite this variation, the 
literature reports a fairly uniform method for cleaning and 
preparing limu. 

After the collection of limu, thoroughly washing off 
the sand, grit and bits of coral becomes the priority. The 
first washing is usually done at the beach in salt water 
(Abbott 1992). Having watched Hawaiians clean limu, I feel 
the need to comment on the meticulous nature in which this 
process is executed. Not a tiny grain of sand or the 
smallest fragment of undesirable limu escapes segregation. 



16 



Reed {1907) agrees that washing the limu immediately after 
collection is done very carefully. 20 

The second washing is usually done at home in fresh 
water (Abbott 1992). Reed (1907), however, reports that 
certain limu do not fare well with fresh water cleaning, 
which would result in "injuring the flavor," and "very 
rapid decay." These limu include limu oolu, limu lipeepee, 
limu lepeahina, limu moopuna-ka-lipoa and possibly some 
others. One of Setchells (1905) informants also categorizes 
limu into those that can be stored for extended periods of 
time (one year or longer) and others that are considered 
"one day limu." The latter limu must be eaten the day they 
are gathered. 

Once clean, the limu is drained and then chopped (i.e. 
limu manauea - Gracilaria coronopi folia J. Agardh, limu 
huluhuluwaena ~ same as limu pakeleawa"a) , pounded (i.e. 
limu wawae^iole - Codium spp., limu llpoa - Dictyopteris 



20 It has been my experience that the character of many older Hawaiians 
is one that supports meticulous actions. Hana kapulu (messy, careless 
work) is especially looked down upon. To do things right the first time 
so that you won't have to do it again is the norm. Therefore, I don't 
find it surprising to see this attitude extending to this practice. 



17 



spp.), or soaked overnight (i.e. limu kohu, limu ~ele"ele - 
Enteromorpha spp. ) depending on the type of limu (Abbott 
1996). In addition to breaking the limu into smaller, 
easily eaten bits, chopping and pounding helps to "release 
the *a*ala (fragrance)" {Abbott 1992). Reed (1907) reports 
that the limu is treated in some combination of breaking, 
pounding, and chopping. 

Light salting is the next step for limu that will be 
consumed in the short term (-1 teaspoon salt/1 cup limu) 
(Abbott 1992). For certain limu that is stored for long 
periods of time, like lipoa and limu kohu, heavier salting 
is applied (-1/2 cup salt/1 cup limu) (Abbott 1992). As 
seasonally available species, lipoa and limu kohu are 
preserved in this manner for periods of shortage (even 6 
months) (Abbott 1992 ) 21 .' In an interview by Larry Kimura of 
Elizabeth Ewaliko (1974) from Wai'alae, CTahu, Mrs. Ewaliko 



21 "Salting" includes " lomi" or rubbing in the salt {Abbott — personal 
communication ) 

18 



emphasizes salting as an extremely important step {" kopi a 
mikol") , 22 

Like other foods, different types of limu are prepared 
and eaten in many different ways by different peoples. Reed 
(1907) and Abbott (1996) provide many ways of preparing 
limu, and so I will not delve too deeply into the subject. 

Limu fits into the main triad of the Hawaiian diet 
along with fish and poi, and so it is not surprising that 
the most popular Hawaiian way of eating limu is raw, with 
fish and poi (Abbott 1996). While modern preparations 
include cooking and boiling with other ingredients, only 
one clearly traditional cooking method was recorded: limu 
"aki"aki [Ahnfeltiopsis concinna (J. Agardh) Silva et 
DeCew] was cooked in the imu, or underground oven (Abbott 
1992). Reed (1907) reports the use of limu in laulau which 
is cooked in an imu. In this case, the limu substitutes for 
the kalo leaves (Colocasia esculenta (L. ) Schott) which 
surrounds a few pieces of meat and the whole bundle is 



22 When talking about limu wSwae "dole, she talks of preserving it in 
ocean water or water with salt added. Using fresh water would result in 
its turning soft and undesirable. 



19 



wrapped in tl leaves (Cordyline fruticosa (L. ) Goeppert) . 
It is unclear if this practice is of pre-contact origin 
(traditional), though it is certainly possible. 23 

Certain combinations of limu (limu wawae"iole and limu 
llpe^epe^e [Laurencia spp.], limu manauea and limu 
mane " one v o [Laurencia nidifica J. Agardh]) are preferred by 
some people, while others (limu kohu, limu "ele^ele) are 
generally not "tainted" by mixing with others (Abbott 
1996). 



Cultivating limu 

Some information about the traditional cultivation of 
limu is available. Loko i^a, or fish ponds, were built in 
various designs with varying amounts of fresh water 
intrusion to provide a range of habitats for both fish and 
limu. Limu "ele"ele, limu manauea, and limu huluhuluwaena 
are examples of limu that can still be found growing in 
various loko i~a around the islands (Abbott 1992). 



23 Dr. Abbott comments, and I would agree, that if cooked laulau style 
and steamed for several hours the limu would completely disappear or 
gelatinize (Abbott — personal communication) . 



20 



Limu was transplanted from one location to another, as 
is documented in the famous example of limu huluhuluwaena 
which was brought to Waikiki for Queen Lili^uokalani from 
either Honokowai, Maui or Moloka'i (Abbott 1996). Living 
limu was brought on rocks , and according to a Pukui 
interview (I960), little stones with the limu covering it 
were ideal for transplanting purposes. Reed (1907) reports 
the transplanting of this same limu from Hawai'i to a loko 
i^a on Moloka K i by an old chief, and from Hawai^i to 
Kane^ohe Bay by yet another chief. She speculates that this 
may have been a common practice of the chiefs of old when 
they moved from one island to the next, much like their 
"best taro and yam plants" that often made the trip. 

Yet another example of cultivation comes from the 
island of Kaua'i in a bay called Moloa'a, where limu 
gatherers actively weed out undesirable limu so that the 
limu kohu can proliferate (Reed 1907). This could be a pre- 
contact "farming" practice that ensured the abundance of 
limu kohu for all living in that ahupua v <3. Alternatively, 
this practice could be of recent origin, which would help 

21 



bolster yield to meet the large demand for limu kohu at the 
CTahu markets. 

Other small scale cultivation practices also exist. 
There is a group of people at "Ewa, O'ahu, led by Mr. 
Walter Kamana, who are "re-seeding" the once luxuriant beds 
at One'ula Beach Park with different edible limu collected 
from Maui. The method I observed them using was to haku, or 
braid, limu with raffia into a circular lei approximately 
18 cm (9 inches) in diameter. Regrettably, I was not able 
to witness the method of "planting" these lei or the 
success of establishment. 



22 



CHAPTER 3: METHODS 

While searching for documented ethnobotanical methods 
to emulate in my research, it soon became clear that 
certain methods were uncomfortable for me or did not apply 
to the type of research that I was interested in. A few of 
these include the use of field forms with standard 
questionnaires (Given and Harris 1994), structured 
interviews (Alexiades 1996), and all types of quantitative 
methods . Finding the appropriate methods to suit my style 
became a melding of methods from different sources. Given 
and Harris (1994) put it best by explaining that "although 
there are some general basic principles (in ethnobotany ) , 
its detailed methodology must reflect the kind of flora of 
a region, and level and type of culture of the people 
living in that region." 



Database Compilation 

The database compilation was the first goal of this 
research project. In order to fulfill this goal a 
literature search was conducted at the Hamilton Library at 

23 



the University of Hawai"i at Manoa and at the Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. In addition to the literature 
search, I listened to audio recordings of interviews with 
manaleo {native speakers of Hawaiian). 24 Some of these 
interviews were conducted by Larry Kimura on a radio show 
that aired in the 1970s called Ka Leo Hawai'i. These 
recordings are housed at the Moore audio lab at U.H. Manoa. 
The other interviews were conducted by Mary Kawena Pukui 
between the 1950s and 1970s. These recordings are housed at 
the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. Both sources 
interviewed manaleo to cover a range of topics including 
personal histories, experiences, information relevant to 
Hawaiian culture, opinions, etc. 

Information gleaned from these sources was then 
organized into an alphabetically arranged relational 
database using Microsoft Excel®. Information was organized 
under the following headings: Limu name (Hawaiian), Source, 



24 I was not able to listen to all of the audio recordings that 
referenced limu due to time and policy restrictions of both 
institutions. Appendix E gives reference information for all audio 
recordings (from Ka Leo Hawai'i and Mary Kawena Pukui interviews) that 
include a reference to limu. 



24 



Page Number, Information, Synonyms, See Also, shared Names, 
and Latin Names. In addition to the literary and audio 
sources , new information obtained through my own interviews 
was also included in the database. 



Interviews 

Conducting interviews with ii/nt/-knowledgeable people 
was the second goal of my research. The methods used for 
finding sources, discussing limu, and recording information 
were rather basic. The keys to being successful in meeting 
people and encouraging their participation in my study were 
honesty, familiarity with cultural norms, and respect. 25 
Being part of the culture and having a genuine interest and 
desire to learn from my own culture was my biggest asset. 

Finding people who have knowledge of limu started with 
talking to family and friends. I compiled a list of 
possible li/nu-knowledgeable people and, depending on how 



25 I was forewarned by ~Anakala Eddie Kaanana, a kupuna (elder) that I 
love dearly and respect immensely, that it is very important to carry 
yourself properly and to approach and treat kupuna the right way. He 
said the wrong etiquette will lead to them "giving you the run around, 
that's for sure!" I can attest to this because I have heard numerous 
stories of this happening and have seen it happen to people, too. 



25 



familiar I was with each person, I either contacted the 
person myself by phone or had the linking person contact 
him/her for me first. If needed, I would introduce myself, 
and then explain my interest in limu, the purpose of my 
research, and the culminating product of the research being 
a Master's thesis paper. If the person was comfortable in 
teaching me what he/she knew about limu I would set up a 
meeting. 

In explaining my research, I discussed the gap between 
the abundance of limu names on record, and the dearth of 
identifications. I shared my desire to learn the names of 
the different kinds of limu and how to use them. 

Upon meeting an informant, I would bring some kind of 
token of my appreciation. 26 Sometimes this was a little food 
{i.e. poke, poi, jam, or bread, something small), or a book 
(Limu by Dr. Abbott), or the list of Hawaiian limu names 
that I was compiling (Appendix B), or some combination of 
the above items. I again explained my purposes for studying 



26 A "olelo no'eau, or Hawaiian proverb, explains this custom (Pukui 
1983). "I hele i kauhale, pa~a pu'olo i ka lima. In going to the house 
of others, carry a package in the hand. Take a gift." 



26 



limu and emphasized that before finalizing my report I 
would let each informant review their own contributed 
information to make sure that the information was accurate. 
Final consent from each informant was requested after all 
editing revisions and/or omissions were made. 

The interview process varied from one informant to the 
next. If possible, meetings were arranged to be at the 
site(s) where the informant regularly goes to pick limu. As 
a participating observer (Alexiades 1996), I would simply 
follow the lead of the informant as they would show me 
where the different limu grew, the names of the limu, how 
to pick the limu, etc. If I found other interesting limu I 
would inquire about these limu for names and uses. After 
picking limu, we would go to a spot where we could clean 
the limu and I would test my memory by reciting the names 
and uses for each. This was good practice for me and it 
verified the information and sometimes sparked additional 
information from my informant. I then explained the method 
of preparing herbarium vouchers for the purpose of 
attaching information to an actual limu specimen. Once I 

27 



felt that I had taken up enough of the informants' time, I 
made sure that I had all the information needed to fill out 
the Personal Information Sheet (Appendix C) for that 
informant. 27 The information sheet provided me with some 
background information for each informant and the source{s) 
of their information. 

If picking limu couldn't be arranged, I would set up a 
meeting to "talk story", or to conduct an unstructured 
interview (Alexiades 1996) where the conversation is casual 
and unstructured, but purposeful. If I felt comfortable 
asking, I requested to record the conversation for 
accuracy. 28 Usually after explaining my interest and 
purposes for studying limu, the informant would naturally 
discuss the different types of limu that he/she is 
accustomed to using. I occasionally asked questions about 
the appearance of certain limu or where it can be found 



27 Personal information usually surfaced naturally when "talking story." 
23 Through the course of my research, I found that asking to record the 
interviews was more of a personal obstacle than something that my 
informants felt uncomfortable with. It made me feel like my work was 
suspicious and not genuine. However, Dr. Abbott informs me that the 
older people that she and Mrs. Williamson interviewed in the 1970s were 
distracted by a recording machine, so they gave it up (Abbott — 
personal communication) 



28 



growing if this information wasn't covered. If the 
opportunity arose, I arranged an additional meeting so that 
I could bring some limu that I was curious about ( including 
limu that I thought he/she discussed) in order to make 
identifications and herbarium vouchers {"Plant Interview" — 
Alexiades 1996). 



Herbarium Voucher Construction 

Herbarium vouchers were prepared by allowing the limu 
to dry on standard 11.5" x 17" herbarium paper using a 
method taught to me by Dr. Celia Smith of the University of 
Hawai'i Botany Department. In order to press and dry the 
limu specimens, "voucher sandwiches" were made with these 
items arranged in the following order: corrugated cardboard 
(12" x 18"), newspaper {4 -8 ply), herbarium paper, limu, 
wax paper, newspaper (4-8 ply), cardboard, (repeat 
sandwich). Heavy weights were placed on top and the whole 
press was allowed to dry for a week to two weeks. The press 
was checked daily to replace wet newspaper and to remove 
herbarium vouchers which were already dry. If the limu did 

29 



not stick naturally to the paper, glue was used. Herbarium 
voucher labels were prepared and attached to the voucher 
with the following information provided: Hawaiian limu name 
with source and likely place of name origin (depending on 
where the informant learned of the limu name), Latin name 
with authority, site (description, habitat, substrate, 
location), collector(s) , date, determiner (of Latin name), 
and collection number. A list of the herbarium vouchers is 
included under Appendix D. The herbarium vouchers were 
submitted to the National Tropical Botanical Garden 
herbarium for preservation. 



Equipment 

Equipment used during research included a Sony digital 
recorder ( IC Recorder ICD-MS1), Sony digital camera 
(CyberShot DSC-P1) with underwater housing, and 35 mm film 
camera (Canon Rebel 2000). 



30 



Limu List Construction 

A "List of Limu Names" {Appendix B) was constructed in 
order to have a list of Hawaiian names that could be given 
to informants. This list was extracted from the database. 
New names were added to the list as they were encountered 
in interviews. Many of these entries are duplicated names 
with slight variations in spelling or entirely different 
regional names applied to the same limu. Because some 
sources used the Hawaiian ^okina (glottal stop) and kahako 
(macron) and others didn't, both were left out. The total 
amount of names included in this list should not be 
mistaken for the total amount of limu named by Hawaiians. 



31 



CHAPTER 4: RESULTS 



Informants 



Informants interviewed are given below together with 
background information, and lists of limu discussed for 
each informant interviewed. 

Sam Ah Quin lives in La v ie, CTahu. He learned most of 
his limu information from the late Helen Hoopii Kenolio 
from Klhei, Maui. The Hawaiian limu names that he discussed 
were huluhuluwaena , manauea, wawae^iole, llpe^epe"e, 
*ele~ele r kohu, lipoa, mane ' one " o , owakawaka, kala, and 
^opihi. 

Carol Anamizu lives in Kahuku, CTahu but she was born 
and raised on Moloka^i. She learned most of her limu 
information from Moloka'i. Mrs. Anamizu, Joy Anamizu 
(daughter), and I picked limu manauea together at Kahuku 
Point. 

Ulu Garmon lives in Keaukaha, Hawai'i. She was also 
born and raised there. She is one of the daughters of the 



32 



late Edith Kanaka" ole. 29 The Hawaiian limu names that she 
discussed were ^aki"aki, alani, huna, ^ele^ele, 
huluhuluwaena, hulu' Xlio, limu kala, puha, pahe^e, kahili, 
palahalaha, manauea, wawae^iole, and llpoa. 

Jeanette Kaualani Akiu Howard lives in Punalu'u, 
Hawai'i. She was born right at PunaliTu beach and still 
lives a block away from where she was born (1923). She also 
runs a lei and memorabilia stand at the beach. She learned 
about limu from her grandmother. She and I picked and 
discussed limu huluhuluwaena, ko"ele"ele, limu "ele^ele, 
lipe^epe^e, ^aki^aki, limu kohu, limu kala and palahalaha. 

Joseph "Blondie" Kaina lives in Hana, Maui. Born 
(1943) and raised there, Uncle Blondie is one of the town's 
most renowned fishermen. He is part of the " akule hui" , a 
group of fishermen that surround akule (big-eyed scad fish) 
and divide it out to any persons who come to help open fish 
out of the nets. We met and discussed limu in the hale 



29 Aunty Edith is one of the most highly revered 

expert /practitioner /educator of Hawaiian culture. She was a master 
chanter, kumu hula {hula instructor), and haku mele (song composer). 
Perhaps her most famous composition, "Ka Uluwehi o ke Kai" , talks about 
the delicious limu of the ocean — llpoa, limu kohu, pahe"e, lipalu. 



33 



kilo, a thatched house, that was built on Ka"uiki Hill 
overlooking Hana Bay. The "akule hui" built this hale at 
this lookout spot, where they go daily to observe the akule 
schools. Meetings with Uncle Blondie often turned into 
discussions between many different fishermen including 
Wilfred Kala, John Kiambao, Masu Hashimoto, Milton Diego, 
and others. The limu names discussed at the akule hui were 
nei, pe^epe^e, limu pehu, nanui, limu make, limu kala, 
lipoa, limu kohu, wawae"iole, huluhuluwaena , limu "ele^ele, 
limu lauoho, iliau, enenue limu, and turtle limu. 

Kawika Kapahulehua lives on o'ahu, but was born in 
Hilo and raised on Ni'ihau. His mother was the source of 
his limu information. "Anakala Kawika is a native speaker 
of Hawaiian language and he is part of the University of 
Hawai'i at Manoa's Manaleo program. This program brings in 
Hawaiian language native speakers to help students learning 
Hawaiian language. Anyone can visit and talk story with 
these native speakers to improve their Hawaiian. He 
discussed two types of limu, limu "ula and limu kanaloa. 



34 



John Lind is the son of Daisy Lind, a well known 
kupuna in Hana, both of whom live in Kipahulu. Uncle John 
told me about how he replants limu kohu "roots" that he 
accidentally brings home when he picks limu. His method is 
to stuff the holdfasts into small holes in the reef. 

Ipo Wong is from Ni'ihau and is also a native speaker 
of Hawaiian involved with the Manaleo program at U.H. at 
Manoa. She discussed limu kohu and lipoa on Ni'ihau. 



Data 

Data collected from the literature, audio records, 
video records , and interviews are organized in the Limu 
Database (Appendix A) . The information gleaned from audio 
and video records as well as interviews has been extracted 
from the Limu Database and is presented in the same table 
format within this results section (Table 1). 



35 



Table 1 
Audio/Video/ Interview Data 



ON 



LIMUNAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER #& 

LATIN NAME 


■a'ala'ula 


Kauahipaula 


Video: 
'AM 


Palah alaha. Nui ka ulu ' ana, kohu ' upl. 






'aki'aki 


Haaiiio 


Audio 


Ka 'ai kela a ka honu, 'A'ole 'ai 'ia ma mua. Lohe 'o ia 'ai ka Pilipino. Kupa a 
mo'a a palupalu. 'A'ole kela he 'ai na kaHawai'i. 






'aki'aki 


Howard 


Interview 


She doesn't eat this limu but it grows all over the rocks in Puna. 




KA067LIMU 

Ahnfeitiopsis 
concinna (J. 
Agardh) Silva et 
DeCew 


'aki'aki, limu 


Gannon 


Interview 


Used in cursing. 






alani, Jimu " 


Garmon 


Interview 


One type is edible and the other is poisonous (and used for stunning fish). Both 
resemble llpoa but are softer. 






'ele'ele 


Ah Quin 


Interview 


Mullet eat the young 'ele'ele. Awa kalamoho eat the long limu. Laniakea's kau is 
July - August. 






'ele'ele, limu 


Kaina 


Interview 


Also limu lauoho. 


limu lauoho 




'ele'ele, limu 


Kaalakea 


Audio 


If there is fresh water, get. If there is no fresh water, no limu 'ele'ele. 







Table 1 
Audio/Video/ Interview Data 






LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER U & 
LATIN NAME 


'ele'ele, limu 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


$4/quart, limu 'ele'ele, ho'okomo i loko o ka stew meat. Na kau o ka limu, 'elua 
manawa o ka makahiki, puka mai keia limu. When ua, wash all the dirt, pau ka 
lepo, a laila ulu mai ka limu, ma'ma'e. Huki me ka lima a ho'oma'ema'e. 

Luhi ka hana 'ana, Aia a miko, 'ono. 'A'ole 'ala ka limu i keia mau la, nui na mea 
o ke kahawai e hob nei. 1 pule ka waiho 'ana i loko o ka 'omole ma ka pahu hau. 
Have to freeze it after. Uliuli, 'o ia ka pololei. Pala mai ma hope (hakeakea mai). 

'Oi aku ka utiuli ma mua o ka pala. '0 ka mea hou ka mea pokopoko. Ma Kahala 

Hilton. 






'ele'ele, limu 


Kauahipaula 


Video: 
'AM 


Ke kau ka limu 'ele'ele, loloa. 






'ele'ele, limu 


Gannon 


Interview 


This limu likes to grow where there is some flow in the water (fresh). You collect it 
by pinching a little at a time so it doesn't get sandy. 






'ele'ele, limu 


Aiona 


Interview 


My dad told me about his mother picking 'ele'ele and that when they went to pick 
it, they needed to do it VERY carefully so no sand would be mixed in with it. She 
would give them lickings if it were sandy. 






'ele'ele, limu 


Howard 


Interview 


She picks up this limu at Punalu'u Beach, growing on the rocks and in the sand at 
the intertidal area (where the freshwater springs are). 




KA062LIMU 
Enteromorpha 
prolifera (Muller) 
J. Agardh 


enenue limu 


Diego 


Interview 


Red with leaves, skinny on bottom and branching on top, smooth. Also called turtle 
limu 






General Limu 


Haanio 


Audio 


'A'ole nui loa i keia manawa. Kapulu kahakai, lepo. Ma mua, kapu kahakai, 'a'ole 
kapulu 'ia. Ma mua he wahi no ka 'au'au, 'a'ole 'au'au ma na 'ano wahi like 'ole. 







Table 1 
Audio /Video/ Interview Data 



LIMUNAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER # & 
LATIN NAME 


General Limu 


Ellis 


Video: 
"AM 


Remembers eating 'ele'ele, fipoa, ITpe'epe'e, limu wawae" iole. 






General Limu 




Video: 
'AM 


A list is prepared of limu: limu kohu, limu lTpoa, limu 'ele'ele, limu manauea, limu 
kala, limu ITpe'epe'e, limu wawae'iole, limu huluhuluwaena, limu 'opihi. 






General Limu 


Kaanana 


Video: 
'AM 


*Ako i ka limu. 






General Limu 


Serrano 


Video: 
'AM 


Remembers eating kohu, 'ele'ele, manauea, lTpoa, ITpe'epe'e. If you huki the limu i 
will be gone, 'ohi limu is the correct way. LTpoa is eaten with fish, ITpe'epe'e is 
salted and eaten with poi or 'opelu. These days there isn't limu like before. 






General Limu 


Kaina 


Interview 


Maka'alae is the main spot for limu in Harm. Hana does not have certain limu like 
Lahaina side like huluhuluwaena, ogo, etc. Those types of limu like dirty water, 
where Harm has clean water. 

Lots of rain makes the limu grow long. The 'opu of the enenue has limu that you 
can rinse and eat with poke. 






General Limu 


Keohokalole 


Video: 
'AM 


'Ohi limu ke ma'ema'e ke kai. Kai nui, nui ka lepo. Nui ka limu ma Kane'ohe. 
Remembers 'ele'ele and huluhuluwaena. 






General limu 


AhQuin 


Interview 


Manawea, waiwai'eole, li peepee, kohu, lipoa, hulu hulu waina, maneo neo, owaka 
waka, kala, opihi (2 types), node, ribbon. Kau - season thereof. Kihei - Garden of 
Eden. Turtle feed from July to September at Kawailoa, O'ahu. 

Pollution and overharvesting changed the limu. His kumu was mostly Helen 
Ho'opi'i Kenolio - "Limu Lady of Maui" - Kihei. Foreign limu is taking over the 
reefs. When gutting fish, you can observe the types of limu that fish eat. 






General limu 


Kaalakea 


Audio 


Kopekope i ka limu a hana po'opo'o. 'Oko'a ka limu i kgia manawa. 







Table 1 
Audio /video/ Interview Data 






LIMUNAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER # & 

LATIN NAME 


hinakea 


Haanio 


Audio 


Limu kama'aina o Kona. Ulu palaha ma ka pohaku pahoehoe. Kopekope me ka 
pahi, kui i ka hale. Limu kai kSla, 'a'ole 'ai pa' a like me ka lipe'epe'e..." 'A'ala, 
'ono. 






hinaula 


Haanio 


Audio 


Limu kama'aina o Kona. Ulu palaha ma ka pohaku pahoehoe. Kopekope me ka 
pahi, kui i ka hale. Limu kai kela, Vole 'ai pa' a like me ka llpe'epe'e..." 'A'ala, 
'ono. 






huluhuluwaena 


AhQuin 


Interview 


With ake. With squid. 






huluhuluwaena 


Kaalakea 


Audio 


Mixed with ake. 






huluhuluwaena 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


Ma Kahala Hilton. Ulu pu me ka limu uliuli. Hoohui 'ia me ke ake. 1 kalani 
huluhuluwaena, 5 kalani ake. 'Ula'ula keia limu. 






huluhuluwaena 


Kaina 


Interview 


Mixed with ake. 






huluhuluwaena 


Garmon 


Interview 


Grows on coral. Her grandmother was the "ake person" of her time - she was 
famous for making the huluhuluwaena with ake (raw beef liver) for everyone. Then 
her mother (Aunty Edith) became the "ake person". 






huluhuluwaena, limu 


Howard 


Interview 


Picks up this limu at Punalu'u Beach (Hawai'i) growing in the shallow area in the 
sand (where there is fresh water springs under ground). 




KA065LIMU 

Grateioupia 
filicina 
(Lamoroux) C. 

Agardh 


hulu'ilio 


Garmon 


Interview 


This limu is soft like wool (recognized from picture in Magruder book). 







Table 1 
Audio/ Video/ Interview Data 



o 



LIMUNAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER U & 
LATIN NAME 


huna 


Garmon 


Interview 


Doesnt eat this type of limu (recognized from picture in Magruder book). 






iliau 


Kaina 


Interview 


Lawalu or boiled and then fed to the enenue. It gives them diarrhea. Come back 1-2 
days later and hook them with the same limu tied to the hook. Also gives pig 
diarrhea. If in the sun, turns yellow. 




KA034LIMU 
Ahnfeltiopsis 
concirma (J. 
Agardh) Silva et 
DeCew 


kahili 


Garmon 


Interview 


This is the really tough limu that looks like a kahili (Turbinaria ornata). 




Turbinaria 
ornata (Turner) J. 
Agardh 


kala 


AhQuin 


Interview 


Enenue feed on kala, ribbon, etc. 






kala, limu 


Kaina 


Interview 


Certain type is eaten. Some people cook it to soften it. 






kala, limu 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


"A'ole 'at Ma, he maunu a he la'au. Kekahi po'e 'okroki a 'ai. 






kala, limu 


Garmon 


Interview 


Never ate limu kala, it was used ceremonially. 






kala, limu 


Kaanana 


Interview 


According to the old stories, the kukini (the chiefs fastest runners) would use limu 
kala to wrap living fish that the chief desired and bring them long distances to the 
chief (and it would still be living. 






kala, limu 


Howard 


Interview 


She doesn't eat this one. 




KA066LIMU 
Sargassum 
echinocarpum J. 
Agardh 



Table 1 
Audio /Video/ Interview Data 



LIMUNAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER #& 
LATIN NAME 


kanaloa, limu 


Kapahulehua 


Interview 


A type of edible limu. 






kihe 


Haanio 


Audio 


'Ai me ka 'opihi, i'a maka. Limu kama'aina o Kona. Limu kai kela, Vole 'ai pa' a 
like me ka lipe'epe'e— " 'A'ala, 'ono. 






kohu 


Ah Quin 


Interview 


Color and iodine depends on area gathered. November , April is kau. Red one has 
low iodine. 






kohu, limu 


Kaina 


Interview 


The best. Crisp, strong smell. Lots of rain makes limu grow , the kohu can get 
really long. 




KA002LIMU 
Aspamgopsis 
taxiformis 
(Delile) Trevisan 


kohu, limu 


Poepoe 


Video: 
TME 


Mo'omomi has the best limu kohu. There are two ways to pick limu: cutting, 
pulling but leaving the roots behind. 






kohu, limu 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


$20fdmole (quart), limu kohu, Aia i waho loa keia limu, 'ula'ula. Wae Makamea 
a pau a ho'okii i loko o ka wai pa'akai. I kekahi la, helele'i mai ka lepo a pau loa. 

A ma'ema'e, 'oki'oki a kopThou. Ke huki mai 'oe, hemo pu mai no me ke one, a 
lawe 'oe i ka mea o lalo aia ka limu i luna. '0 laio, aia i laila ke kumu. 






kohu, limu 


Wong 


Interview 


About four days after it rains, you can go get the limu kohu. This is the main limu 
eaten on Ni'ihau. 






kohu, limu 


Kauahipaula 


Video: 

'AM 


Huki i ka limu kohu. 







Table 1 
Audio/Video/ Interview Data 






LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER # & 

LATIN NAME 


kohu, limu 




Video; 

'AM 


Ki'i 'ia i ka manawa kai malo'o ma hope o ka ua nui. Ho'oku i loko o ka wai a ao 
ka po, a laila e ho'oma'ema'e a kopi i ka pa'akai. 






kohu, limu 


Ellis 


Video: 

'AM 


KauaTs kohu is loloa (long) where it is 'oki 'ia. O'ahu's kohu is pokopoko (short). 






kohu, limu 


Lind 


Interview 


Method for planting limu kohu. Take back the roots (holdfasts) that sometimes 
come out when picking this limu, and stuff them into little holes in the reef where 
limu kohu normally grows. 






kohu, limu 


Howard 


Interview 


She picks up this limu at a place called laupapa 'ohua (reef with manini fish 
babies). 




KA061LIMU 
Asparagopsis 
tasiformis 
(Delile) Trevisan 


ko'ele 


Howard 


Interview 


She picks up this limu at a place called laupapa 'ohua (reef with manini fish 
babies). This limu is eaten with "opihi. 


ko'ele'ele 
(also nei) 


KA064LIMU 
Ahnfeltiopsis 
flabelliformis 
(Havey) Masuda 


ko'ele, limu 


Ellis 


Video: 
'AM 


Uaua. Ulu me ka ha'uke'uke. 






ko'ele'ele 


Howard 


Interview 


She picks up this limu at a place called laupapa 'ohua (reef with manini fish 
babies). This limu is eaten with 'opihi. 


ko'ele (also 

nei) 


KA064LIMU 

Ahnfeltiopsis 
flabelliformis 
(Havey) Masuda 


lepe-a-Hina, limu-a- 
Hina 


Ah Quin 


Interview 


Red and slimy. Eaten with lemon and soiu. 






Wpe'epe'e 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


' Aina Haina. Crunchy. 'Oi aku ka 'ono o ka lipe'epe'e ma mua o ka manauea. 







Table 1 
Audio/ Video/ Interview Data 






LIMUNAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER # & 

LATIN NAME 


llpe'epe'e 


Keohokalole 


Video: 
AM 


Season is Kekemapa, New Year, Kualoa has that kind of good limu. 






llpe'epe'e 


Kauahipauia 


Video: 
'AM 


MaNanakuli. Aia i lalo o ka 'akfaki 






lipe'e'pe'e 


Haanio 


Audio 


Loa'a ma Kona, Vole nui. 






UpeVpe'e 


Howard 


Interview 


She picks up this limu at a place called laupapa 'ohua (reef with manini fish 
babies). 




KA068LIMU 

Laurencia sp. 


llpoa 


Kaina 


Interview 


There are different kinds of llpoa. 






llpoa 


Wong 


Interview 


The kala and nenue eat the llpoa. On Ni' ihau, there is a lot of llpoa, but the Nf ihau 
people consider it 'opala (rubbish). When it is the right season, the ocean is thick 
with lTpoa and it washes up on the sand making a very strong smell. 






llpoa 


Haanio 


Audio 


Loa'a ma Kona, Vole nui. 






llpoa 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


Holoi no 'oe, kaka *oe a 'oki'oki. Ho^okomo i loko o lea h 6mole. Maunalua used to 
be (Hawai'i Kai now). He manawa no e pae mai. 'A'ole hana lei 'ia, he mea'ai 
wale no. 






llpoa 


Ellis 


Video: 
'AM 


Waikiki is onaona i ka llpoa. 






llpoa 


AhQuin 


Interview 


Kau is February on Maui. 







Table 1 
Audio/video/ Interview Data 






LIMUNAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER # & 

LATIN NAME 


llpoa 


Garmon 


Interview 


Her all time favorite limu is llpoa. 






lipu'upu'u 


Keohokalole 


Video: 
AM 


Eaten with salt salmon. 






make, limu 


Kaina 


Interview 


Out Muolea side. 






manauea 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


Falupalu mai ko kakou manauea ma mua o ka ogo. 'Oki'oki e like me ka limu 
kohu, 'A'ohe m'aika'i ka mea pu'upu'u. Nana 'oe i ka mea 'akahi no a puau (?) mai 
i nuna. Ki'i i ka mea ha ula, maika'i. 'Aina Haina. 






manauea 


Kaalakea 


Audio 


Pakepake ke hou. Palahe mai i ka wai wela. 






manauea 


Haanio 


Audio 


'Ai 'ia, he meaho'ohuihui. 






manauea 


Gannon 


Interview 


Recognized from picture in Magruder book. 






manauea 


Anamizu 


Interview 


Kahuku Point still has a lot of manauea growing in the limestone depressions. If 
you're not going to eat it all, it can be preserved with some salt in ajar and 
refrigerated. 




KA059LIMU 
Gracilaria 
coronopifolia J. 
Agardb 



Table 1 
Audio/Video/ Interview Data 






LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER # & 
LATIN NAME 


nanui 


Kaina 


Interview 


Looks like lipoa. It is also eaten. It has a stronger smell than lipoa and you can 
smell it when driving on Hamoa Road sometimes. It has seasons when it floats in 
and is eaten by the enenue. 

When you cut the '5pu of the enenue, you can rinse the insides and mix that limu 
(which is already chopped up for you) with the poke. 






nei 


Kaina 


Interview 


'Opihi limu, oldtimers eat with 'opihi (picked when dark). Smooth and crunchy. 


(also ko'ele, 
ko'ele'ek) 


KA028LIMU 
Ahnfeltiopsis 
flabelliformis 
(Havey) Masuda 


ogo, limu 


Iii 


Video: 
AM 


'Ohi i ka limu. Before, limu ogo was rubbish. 






ogo, limu 


Keohokalole 


Video: 

'AM 


Nui ma Kualoa. 






opihi limu 


AhQuin 


Interview 


1) Green with clusters. 2) Long red. 






'opihi limu 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


Hikinoke 'ai. 






'opihi, limu 


Kaalakea 


Audio 


Pupupu kona 'ano. Kuku 'o lalo. 






'opihi, limu 


Ellis 


Video: 

'AM 


'A'ole maopopo ka inoa maoli. 







Table 1 
Audio/ Video/ Interview Data 






LIMUNAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER #& 

LATIN NAME 


owakawaka 


Ah Quin 


Interview 


Dark brown, lettuce like, brittle. 






'owakawaka 


Keohokalole 


Video: 
'AM 


Type of limu. 






pahapaha 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


Pae mai no 'o ia, uliuli. ' Ai ka po'e kepanT, 'oki'oki me ka soiu a he aha la. 






pahe'e 


Haanio 


Audio 


Ulu ma ka lae o Pahe'ehe'e ka inoa. Ho'okahi ulu 'ana o ka makahiki. 






pahe'e 


Gannon 


Interview 


Recognized from picture in Magruder book. 






pakeleawa'a 


Sanborn 


Audio 


Limu planting. They did it. "Chop-chop" is taken on small stones. Don't uproot. 
Doesn't grow in rough water, likes sand. Grows at low tide, long. More 'ono at 
some places because of the spring water. 

If a woman is pe a, Vole hele i ka hana, haumia. 'A'ole komo i ke kai. 






pakoa 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


Pahe'e loa. Ulu i luna o ka pohaku a me ke one. Palupalu, kohu kilika. 






palahalaha 


Garmon 


Interview 


Put into soup after you turn the fire off (recognized from picture in Magruder 
book). 






palatolalia 


Howard 


Interview 


She doesn't eat this limu but she knows some people eat it with shoyu (Japanese 
style). 




KA063LIMU 
Ulvafasciata 
Dehle 



Table 1 
Audio/ Video/ Interview Data 



-4 



LIMUNAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER # & 

LATIN NAME 


pe'epe'e, limu 


Kaina 


Interview 


Grows in cracks, plenty down Maka'alae. Old kind has coral sometimes, so you 
shouldn't pick that one. 






pehu, limu 


Kaina 


Interview 


Looks just like kohu, except it flattens when taken out of the water. Doesn't have a 
strong smell like kohu and it tastes hot He knows of one guy that puts it in his stew 
to give it a hot flavor. 






puha 


Gannon 


Interview 


Seasonal limu that likes water flow (recognized from picture in Magruder book). 






turtle limu 


Kaina 


Interview 


Green limu that grows down Hana Bay. 






turtle limu 


Diego 


Interview 


Red with leaves, skinny on bottom and branching on top, smooth. Also called 
enenue limu 






'uJa, limu 


Kapahulehua 


Interview 


Red, looks like llpoa. 






wawae'iole 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


Aia no i waho. 'A'ole makemake i ka mea pae mai. Ki'i i ka mea, aia no ma laila. 
'A'ole maika'i ka mea nunui loa, ka mea makali'i mai no. O ka mea makali'i mai 
ka mea helu 'ekahi. Pipili i ka 'ako'ako'a. 

"Hana 'oe me ka ma'ema'e, 'ai n5 'oe me ka ma'ema'e, 'a'ole kapulu." Lawe 1 
kalani kai a ho'okomo ka wawae'iole, mau no ke ko'i'i, 'a'ole palupalu. Palupalu i 
ka wai maoli. Ina 'a'ole kai, pa'akai, kopi a miko. 


'a'ala'ula 




wawae'iole 


Kaina 


Interview 


Hana mostly has the kind that lies flat on the rocks, not the one that branches 
upright from the sand and sways. 




KA060LIMU 

Codium atrabicum 
Kutzing 


wawae'iole 


Gannon 


Interview i 


Recognized from picture in Magruder book. 







Table 1 
Audio/ Video/ Interview Data 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


TYPE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


VOUCHER #& 
LATIN NAME 


wawae'iole, limu 


Kebhokalole 


Video: 
'AM 


Has at Hatfula. 










Discussion 

Of the 229 distinct Hawaiian limu names compiled, 172 
were unduplicated names (i.e. "pe "epe "e" , "pe^epe^e, limu" , 
" llpe"epe^e" are all considered duplicates). 30 The 
association of 36 names with actual limu has been 
documented through previous studies (of which I am 
confident because of confirmations through my studies), the 
association of 5 names with actual limu has been documented 
through this study, and 87 names have documented 
information about them but have not been associated with 
actual limu. 31 This may be one of the largest lists of 
indigenous folk names for edible algae in the world, with 
half of these names unassociated with actual limu, there is 
a need to further this research and record these 
associations. 

Through meeting people who use and have knowledge 
about limu I was able to learn a great deal. Therefore, I 
accept the first hypothesis, concluding that there are 



30 There are probably more duplicates in this list of 172 names but they 
haven't been identified yet, 

31 See Appendix B for the breakdown of this data. 



49 



people remaining who can recognize and identify Hawaiian 
limu. Hearing Hawaiian names of limu that I had only 
previously read about made for exciting times. It's a very 
good feeling when you have found someone that knows other 
limu names that you have not heard of before. A diminishing 
breed, the limu gatherers are still around. I anticipate 
that the current trend of fewer people learning about the 
"less famous" limu will continue and efforts to record such 
information will become progressively more difficult. 

There was a wide range of information gathered from 
various informants and from the literature search. 
Approximately 10% (103 out of 980) of the data entries in 
the Limu Database came from oral interviews that I 
conducted or were recorded by audio/video (Ka Leo Hawai'i, 
etc . ) . Though my main interest was in recording the 
Hawaiian names and uses along with collecting the samples, 
other types of information including distributions, 
seasonality of limu for different locations, and 
interesting anecdotes were also brought forth. For example, 
it is clear that there are certain types of limu that are 

50 



seasonal (i.e. limu pahe"e, limu "ele^ele f llpoa) while 
others can be found year around (i.e. limu kohu, limu 
wawae "iole) . And then there are certain times that are good 
for picking limu (i.e. during the quarter phases of the 
moon because of the mild tide fluctuations making it less 
likely that the limu will be "sunburnt", or a couple of 
days after heavy rains for limu kohu because the limu will 
be longer). While all informants knew intimately what kinds 
of limu were in their own "backyard", some were even aware 
of distributions of certain limu (especially the kinds not 
available at home) for other parts of the island. For 
example, Blondie Kaina told me that limu huluhuluwaena, 
limu "ele^ele, and limu ogo among others can't be found in 
abundance in Hana or on the East side of Maui in general, 
but that these were limu that thrive in the waters of 
Kihei, Lahaina, Kanaha, etc. probably because of the water 
conditions (nutrients, temperature, salinity, etc.). While 
information about distribution and seasonality of limu 
gained from this research was more anecdotal, future 
research focusing on these aspects for different types of 

51 



limu could be very useful and important for tracking the 
change of limu availability over time. 

A common theme that I encountered was that the limu 
isn't like it used to be. Whether the taste is different or 
it isn't abundant like before, it seems that the limu is 
changing because of social and environmental changes . The 
reasons for this change, according to some of the 
informants {Elizabeth Ewaliko), are a combination of 
pollution of our waters and greediness of some people who 
take everything they can get. The trend seems to be the 
same for fish according to many casual conversations with 
old-timer fisherman who can reminisce about more abundant 
times . 

The informants I spoke with agreed that picking limu 
should not be done by pulling and uprooting the limu, but 
by carefully plucking the limu to leave behind the 
holdfasts. By using this collection method, you would also 
be conserving the resource and assuring that there would be 
more upon your return. None of my informants were 
commercial fishermen and each was tied very closely to 

52 



their respective places where they "pick up" limu because 
of their long tradition of gathering at those places 32 and 
because it was their home area, so this may have had a 
bearing on the methods that they used {sustainable harvest 
for the family versus harvest for economic gain) . 

As far as uses other than edible, only Aunty "Ulu 
Garmon mentioned ceremonial use {limu kala) and one used 
for cursing (limu ^aki^aki) . This may be because I did not 
ask specifically for these uses or because I spoke with 
people who primarily use limu for food and this was my 
obvious interest during interviews. Perhaps if I 
interviewed kahuna (la^au lapa^au) I might have learned 
more about medicinal and ceremonial uses of limu. 

Admittedly, my second hypothesis is a complex 
statement that is easily supported. Simply find a single 
informant that can tell you what, how, where and why they 
pick limu and it's just about covered. The real question is 
how much and what kind of traditional knowledge about limu 



32 Place is an important component of Hawaiian culture because of the 
connection one has to the land, people, culture, and history of one's 
birthplace. If the connection is strong it will translate into pride 
and result in care of the place. 



53 



is still kept in the minds of modern practitioners as 
compared to earlier times and how much of the old knowledge 
is left. For the purpose of this report and based on what I 
did learn from my informants, I also accept the second 
hypothesis that there was a wide range of limu knowledge 
that different informants covered. The crucial question, 
however, still remains- how does the current collective 
pool of traditional limu knowledge compare with the same 
pool 100 years ago (or 200 years ago, or 100 years from now 
for that matter!)? Part of this question was answered in 
the reflections of a few informants reminiscing of the old 
folks that they remember and revered who used to know "all 
the limu and their uses". 

This question about the direction that the information 
that we desperately try to record and conserve is going 
made me question how this body of information evolves. My 
initial belief was that the pool of traditional information 
can only get smaller because of the inability of a person 
to pass on absolutely all knowledge to another. This might 
be true, depending on the definition of "traditional." One 

54 



of the personal hurdles that this research project has 
allowed me to 1) identify, and 2) accept and overcome, is 
the ideal that young Hawaiians are often searching for in 
their quest to gain knowledge about our culture and 
history. This ideal is the search for information, whether 
it pertains to culture, history, botany, etc., that pre- 
dates contact with Captain Cook in 1778 because of its 
"true and untainted" nature, which makes it "traditional." 
My quest was the same, to be able to identify what 
information/practices was "truly Hawaiian" , and what was 
developed/introduced/modified after contact. This ideal was 
becoming an obstacle for me because it was becoming the 
tool that I used to gauge all information. "Is this 
traditional or is this post-contact?" It was a problem 
because it devalued information that was gained through 
experience. It also dictates that things cannot be given 
Hawaiian names, or practices cannot be evolved without the 
stigma that they are "non-traditional." This is a problem 
for me because we are Hawaiian. No more and no less than 
the Hawaiians pre-Captain Cook. This research has taught me 

55 



to discard my ideals of traditional vs. non-traditional and 
accept that we are what we are by learning from our own 
experiences as well as from the past. 

As expected, the informant *s knowledge was directly 
related to the place that he/she learned about limu. While 
most informants were aware of different limu that grew 
outside of his/her harvesting areas, the majority of 
knowledge came from his/her harvesting grounds. Part of the 
reason why this is so is because the people I spoke with 
have a practical knowledge base. They know what they know 
by doing and most of them learned about limu from their 
elders when they were young. A trend that we may see grow 
as the world becomes a "smaller" place because of the 
media, higher education, and the world wide web, is that 
people's knowledge will become "homogenized." My knowledge 
about limu is the perfect example. I come out of this 
research knowing a heck of a lot about limu but it is from 
reading books, listening to tapes and videos, and 
interviewing people from many different places. I may know 
a lot, but my information is not distinctly tied to place 

56 



or practicality. This is not necessarily a bad thing but it 
is very acultural as Hawaiian culture goes because of the 
importance of tying things to place. Where the information 
comes from is just as important as the information itself. 

There is a small industry developing in the way of 
limu cultivation. Limu farms in Kona and Moloka'i (Machado 
"ohana) are currently producing limu ogo for sale at 
markets on most, if not all, of the Hawaiian islands. 
Additionally, the recent resurgence in fishpond restoration 
on the main islands (Hawai^i, Maui, Moloka'i, O'ahu, and 
Kaua'i) has sparked interest in the cultivation of limu 
within fishponds for food (both for fish and human 
consumption) and stabilization of the fishpond. 

If the term cultivation is used loosely, it can also 
be applied to most limu gatherers who visit the same 
locations frequently to collect. These limu gatherers 
develop an intimate understanding of the locality, its 
conditions, and the particular limu that they collect. By 
harvesting properly (leaving the "roots" behind), 
occasionally weeding undesirable, encroaching limu, and in 

57 



one case, replanting roots in different locations (John 
Lind plants limu kohu roots that accidentally make it into 
his harvest), the practical limu harvester is, in fact, 
tending and cultivating his/her limu. 



58 



CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 

Embarking on scientific research that aims to 
elucidate information from within my culture was very hard 
for me. There are still lingering feelings of resentment 
towards the whole process within myself. Before starting 
the research, I wrestled with the idea of intracultural 
research and, particularly, which methods would be 
acceptable to my culture. I wanted to learn about the names 
and uses of different limu in a casual, culturally 
appropriate setting so that I could perpetuate these 
traditions with my own family and to document this 
information for future generations. These goals did not 
always mesh nicely with some of my doubts and fears about 
the process. 

There were a number of things about the scientific 
process that made this project uncomfortable. Informed 
consent, while extremely important and ethical, was very 
awkward for me personally, especially because I wanted to 
preserve an informal setting. Asking for verbal /written 
consent made me feel like there was something about this 

59 



experience to be suspicious of. I was also terrified of 
rejection. I think a person who is learning from a culture 
other than his/her own is better able to deal with 
rejection. I was afraid of being rejected by people within 
my own culture and any kind of lasting effects that it 
might have on the perception of me in the eyes of that 
informant, his/her family, and broader community. In a 
sense I did not want to be viewed primarily as a scientist 
trying to gather information rather than a Hawaiian wanting 
to learn about his own culture. 

Something that bothered me that springs from my own 
personal culture, not necessarily Hawaiian or local culture 
is that I didn't want to be a burden to these people. While 
most of them seemed to enjoy sharing their mana "o, it 
nevertheless concerned me that I would be taking up too 
much of their time. 

I also struggled with the idea of learning from 
multiple kumu or sources. Learning things like picking and 
eating limu were traditionally passed on in the natural 
process of young ones doing these things with their family. 

60 



Because l*m older and don't have family that can teach me 
about these things, and I wished to learn about limu names 
and uses from different areas, I had to sacrifice natural, 
cultural way of learning these things from relatively few, 
familial sources and learn from whoever was willing to 
share. 

On top of all these other concerns, there was a 
pressure to collect enough data to fulfill the requirements 
of a Master's thesis within a certain time frame. Very few 
people really want to be a student forever but are proud of 
being life-long learners. This project is one for the life- 
long learner. While the information learned and presented 
thus far may fulfill the academic requirements, the work of 
learning, documenting, and perpetuating the use of limu 
throughout Hawai'i will never be complete. 

I have learned a lot about myself through this 
research process. I think that people should be encouraged 
to learn and document information from our knowledgeable 
elders if it is something they are comfortable with. The 
wealth of information that slowly dies away as our kupuna 

61 



pass on, whether it be about limu or plants or place names 
or family mo"olelo should be recorded for the richness of 
our culture and to memorialize today, tomorrow's past. 



62 



REFERENCES 

Abbott, Isabella Aiona. 1947. Brackish-water algae from the 
Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Science {1947) 1 (4): 193 - 

214. 

. 1992. La'au Hawai'i: Traditional Hawaiian uses 

of plants. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. 

. 1996 Revised {1974). Limu an ethnobotanical 

study of some Hawaiian seaweeds. Lawai: Pacific 
Tropical Botanical Garden. 

. 1999. Marine red algae of the Hawaiian Islands. 

Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. 

Ah Quin, Sam. Personal Interview. August 2001. 

"Aha Manaleo (1998: Hawai~i). Limu Conference. Videotape 
15429 {Sinclair AV Center). 

Aiona, William Thomas. Personal Interview. October 2001. 

Alexiades, Miguel N. 1996. Selected guidelines for 

ethnobotanical research: A field manual. New York: New 
York Botanical Garden. 

Anamizu, Carol and Joy. Personal Interview. August 2001. 

Andrews, Lorrin. 1974 (First published in 1865). A 

dictionary of the Hawaiian language, to which is 
appended an English-Hawaiian vocabulary and a 
chronological table of remarkable events. Rutland, 
Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle Company. 

Berlin, Brent. 1992. Ethnobiological classification: 

Principles of categorization of plants and animals in 
traditional societies. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton 
University Press. 



63 



Bryan, E. H. Jr. 1933. Hawaiian nature notes. Honolulu: 
Star-Bulletin Publishing Co., pp. 138 - 143. 

Chamberlain, J. E. 1881. Algae of the Hawaiian Islands. 
Hawaiian Annual (1881) 7: 32 - 33. 

Doty, Maxwell S. 1957. List of published Hawaiian names for 
seaweeds. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Botany 
Department . 

Ewaliko, Elizabeth. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai K i 
at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.90A. 

Garmon, "Ulu. Personal Interview. October 2001. 

Gaudichaud, Charles. 1826. Voyage Autour du Monde. Paris, 

p. 148. 

Given, David R. and Warwick Harris. 1994. Techniques and 

methods of ethnobotany. New Zealand: The Commonwealth 
Secretariat. 

Haanio, Mary Ahio. 1960. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW106.2.2. 

Handy, E. S. Craighill. 1940. The Hawaiian planter, Vol. I. 
Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Bulletin 161. 

Henriques-Peabody Collection. Names of Hawaiian birds, 

shore fauna, and seaweeds. Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi 
Bishop Museum Archives. MS HENI, p. 863. 

Howard, Jeanette Kaualani Akiu. Personal Interview. October 
2001. 

Judd, Henry P. 1930. Hawaiian proverbs and riddles. 

Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Bulletin 77. 



64 



Kaaiakamanu , D . M . , J . K . Akina , and Akaiko Akana 
(translation). 1968 (1922). Hawaiian herbs of 
medicinal value. Honolulu: Territorial Board of Health 
Bulletin, reprinted by Pacific Book House. 

Kaalakea, Kawika. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.178A. 

Kaanana, Edward. Personal Interview. March 2001. 

Kaina, Joseph "Blondie". Personal Interview (Wilfred Kala, 
John Kiambao, Masu Hashimoto, Milton Diego, and others 
included). January 2001. 

Kapahulehua, Kawika. Personal Interview. May 2001. 

Kimura, Larry. 1974. Ka Leo Hawai'i: Interview with 
Elizabeth Ewaliko. University of Hawai'i Audio 
Archives HV 24.90A 

Lind, John. Personal Interview. May 2001. 

MacCaughey, Vaughan. 1916. The seaweeds of Hawaii. American 
Journal of Botany (1916) 8: 474-479. 



. 1917. The algae of the Hawai'ian Archipelago. 

Hawaiian Annual (1918) 44: 129-155. 

Magruder, William H. and Jeffrey W. Hunt. 1979. Seaweeds of 
Hawaii a photographic identification guide. Honolulu: 
The Oriental Publishing Company. 

Miller, Harvey Alfred. 1951. Limu: The ethnic uses of 

Hawaiian algae. Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 
Archives. QK Bot. Pam. 2701. 

Neal, Marie C. 1930. Hawaiian marine algae. Honolulu: 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Bulletin 67 . 



65 



Pukui, Mary Kawena. 1960. Interview with Winifred Sanborn, 
Alice Aki, I. Ashciown. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 
Audiotape Archives. A Haw 84.6.1. 



. 1983. "Olelo no'eau. Hawaiian proverbs and 

poetical sayings. Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop 
Museum Special Publication No. 71. 

Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Samuel H. Elbert. 1986. Hawaiian 
Dictionary. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 

Reed, Minnie. 1907. The economic seaweeds of Hawaii and 
their food value. Ann. Report Hawaii Agricultural 
Experiment Station 1906: 61-88. 

Setchell, William Albert. 1905. Limu. University of 

California Publications: Berkeley The University 
Press. 2 (3): 91-113. 

The Molokai Experience. KHET-TV. 1996. Videotape 15591 
(Sinclair AV Center). 

Tilden, Josephine 1905. Algae collecting in the Hawaiian 
Islands. The Hawaiian Annual (1905)??: 131-145. 

Wong, Ipo. Personal Interview. May 2001. 



66 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Full Reference Key 



SOURCE 


FULL REFERENCE 


Abbott 1947 


Abbott, Isabella Aiona. 1947. Brackish-Water Algae from the Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Science (1947) 
1(4): 193-214. 


Abbott 1996 


Abbott, Isabella Aiona. 1996 Revised (1974). Limu an ethnobotanical study of some Hawaiian 
seaweeds. Lawai: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. 


Ah Quin 


Ah Quin, Sam. Personal Interview. August 2001. 


Aiona 


Aiona, William Thomas. Personal Interview. October 2001 . 


Akana 


Kaaiakamanu, D. M., J. K. Akina, and Akaiko Akana (translation). 1968 (1922). Hawaiian herbs of 
medicinal value. Honolulu: Territorial Board of Health Bulletin, reprinted by Pacific Book House. 


Anamizu 


Anamizu, Carol and Joy. Personal Interview. August 2001. 


Andrews 


Andrews, Lorrin. 1 974 (First published in I 865). A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language, to which is 
appended an English-Hawaiian Vocabulary and a Chronological Table of Remarkable Events. Rutland, 
Vermont: Charles E. Turtle Company. 


Bryan 


Bryan, E. H. Jr. 1933. Hawaiian Nature Notes. Honolulu: Star-Bulletin Publishing Co., pp. 138 - 143. 


Chamberlain 


Chamberlain, J. E. 1881. Algae of the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaiian Annual (188 1)7: 32-33. 


Diego 


Kaina, Joseph "Blondie". Personal Interview (Wilfred Kala, John Kiambao, Masu Hashimoto, Milton 
Diego, and others included). January 2001 . 


Doty 


Doty, Maxwell S. 1957. List of published Hawaiian names for seaweeds. Honolulu: University of 
Hawaii Botany Department. 


Ellis 


Nalani Eltis - 'Aha Manaleo (1998: Hawaii). Limu Conference. Videotape 1 5429 (Sinclair AV Center). 


Ewaliko 


Ewaliko, Elizabeth. Ka Leo Hawai' i. University of Hawai' i at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.90A. 


Gannon 


Garmon, 'Ulu. Personal Interview. October 2001 . 


Gaudichaud 


Gaudichaud, M. Charles. 1826. Voyage Autour du Monde. Paris, p. 148. 


Haanio 


Haanio, Mary Ahio. 1960. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW 106.2.2. 


Handy 


Handy, E. S. Craighill. 1940. The Hawaiian Planter, Vol. I. Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 
Bulletin 161. 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Full Reference Key 



Henriques- 

Peabody 


Henriques-Peabody Collection. Names of Hawaiian birds, shore fauna, and seaweeds. Honolulu: Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Archives. MS HENI, p. 863. 


Howard 


Howard, Jeanette Kaualani Akiu. Personal Interview. October 2001 . 


Hi 


Sarah 'Hi - ' Aha Manaleo (1998: Hawai'i). Limu Conference. Videotape 15429 {Sinclair AV Center). 


Kaalakea 


Kaalakea, Kawika. Ka Leo Hawaii. University of Hawafi at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24. 178A. 


Kaanana 


Kaanana, Edward. Personal Interview. March 2001. 


Kaina 


Kaina, Joseph "Blondie". Personal Interview (Wilfred Kala, John Kiambao, Masu Hashimoto, Milton 
Diego, and others included). January 2001. 


Kapahulehua 


Kapahulehua, Kawika. Personal Interview. May 2001. 


Kauahipaula 


Elizabeth Kauahipaula - 'Aha Manaleo (1998: HawaPi). Limu Conference. Videotape 15429 (Sinclair 
AV Center). 


Keohokalole 


Emma Keohokalole - 'Aha Manaleo (1998: Hawai'i). Limu Conference. Videotape 15429 (Sinclair AV 
Center). 


Lind 


Lind, John. Personal Interview. May 2001. 


MacCaughey 
1916 


MacCaughey, Vaughan. 1916. The seaweeds of Hawaii. American Journal of Botany (1916) 8: 474-479. 


MacCaughey 
1917 


MacCaughey, Vaughan. 1917. The algae of the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Hawaiian Annual (1918) 44: 
129-155. 


Magruder 


Magruder, William H. and Jeffrey W. Hunt. 1979. Seaweeds of Hawaii a photographic identification 
guide. Honolulu: The Oriental Publishing Company. 


Miller 


Miller, Harvey Alfred. 1951. Limu: the ethnic uses of Hawaiian algae. Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop 
Museum Archives, QK Bot. Pam. 2701. 


Neat 


Neal, Mary C. 1930. Hawaiian marine algae. Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Bulletin 67. 


Poepoe 


Mac Poepoe - The Molokai Experience. KHET-TV. 1996. Videotape 15591 (Sinclair AV Center). 


Pukui 


Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Samuel H. Elbert. 1986. Hawaiian Dictionary. Honolulu: University of 
Hawaii Press. 


Reed 


Reed, Minnie. 1907. The economic seaweeds of Hawaii and their food value. Ann. Report Hawaii 
Agricultural Experiment Station 1906: 61-88. 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Fall Reference Key 



Sanbom 


Winifred Kalei Saffery Sanborn - Pukui, Mary Kawena. 1960. Interview with Winifred Sanbor, Alice 
Aki, I. Ashdown. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Audiotape Archives. A HAW 84.6.1. 


Serrano 


Hannah Serrano - "Aha Manaleo (1998: Hawai'i). Limu Conference. Videotape 15429 (Sinclair AV 

Center). 


Setchell 


Setchell, William Albert. 1905. Limu. University of California Publications: Berkeley The University 
Press. 2 (3): 91-113. 


Simpson 


Simpson, Flora L. 1944. Memo to Seaweed Eaters. Paradise of the Pacific 56 (8): 5-6. 


Tilden 


Tilden, Joseph E. 1905. Algae collecting in the Hawaiian Islands. The Hawaiian Annual (1905)??: 131- 
145. 


Wong 


Wong, Ipo. Personal Interview. May 2001. 



3 v 



3 S 






1 6 

J 3 






II 



11" 



= 1 

* i 






Ik 



bS 



111 
1*1 



s 2 i. 
Ill 
si I 

JjS *■ 

III 



s£ 



a a 
si 

II 

is 

■I 

I s 
■|i 

« s 

a a 

la 



s 

8 i 

If 
is 



I' 



if 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 2 out of 59 



LIMIT NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATEN NAMES 


ata-akoa 


Bryan 












Ecfocarpus sp. 


AKA'AKO'A 


Doty 


1 










Ectocarpus indiats Sender 


Ska'akn'a 


Pukui 


12 


A variety of seaweed 










aka-akoa, lima 


MacCaugtaey 
191? 


144 


Pleorifol along the coasts, in shallow watw. Used by them (natives) for food 


iimu hulu-ilio 






Ectocarpits IudScus Sender 


akaakoa, limu 


Neal 












Eciocarpus 


akaakoa, limu 


Reed 


&6 




limu huluilio 






Eciocarpus imticus? Sondef. iLCtoctwptts sp.? 


StBla 


Pnkui 


13 


Same as kala, a seaweed. 


kala 




TwoendejnicraspberrtesAuAur spp, 




aki-aki 


Bryan 












Ahnft((bi£t sp. 1. 


akiaki 


Sefchell 


93, 96 


Commonly eaten on Hawfii' i, eaten with opihi and called Koeleele {KawaJhae) 


koeleele, ekahakaha (Maui) 






Ahnfiidtict Poiyi&s Aresch, A. concima J. 
Agafdh A GigwffHQfttcs J. Ag&rdb 


' AKIAKI 


Doty 


1 


(Havai'i) 




kocledc; ekahakahB 
(MacCaughey) 




Ahnftltiaconctwxi J. Ag.; Atmfe/tia polyides 
([form. alAfwfeilia conciraw l.Ag.?] fide Reed) 


'ajaaJd 


Ma grader 


5? 










Ahnfcttia condnna J Ag. 


'aki'aki 


Pukui 


14 


A kind oFcoarse red seaweed Qhnfeltia cmcima ) which because of its 
toughness must b? eaten in little bites; a good source of carageenin, & colloid. (KJ 
line 41.) Called 'eteju^pMaai. 


' eleau 




seashore rush grass fipevoboiui virginicus ) 


Abaft! tia concinna J. Ag. 


'aki'aki 


Haanio 


Audio 


Ka'aikelBakabonu. "Aous'ai 'iamamua. Lone 'oig 'aikaPihpino. Kupaa 
mo'aapalupaht. 'A'olekelBhe 'ai na ka Hawaii. 










aki'aki 


Howard 


lltteiView 


She doesn't eat tills limu but it grows all over the rocks in Puna. 








Ahnfeltia concinna 1 Ag. 


aki-aki, limu 


MacCaaghey 


ISO 


This seatbeed is relished by the Datives and is commonly sold in the markets 


limu eleau 






Afmfeltia contfnna J. Ag. 


Bki&ki, limu 


Reed 


86 


limu eleau on Maui. Craw quite near the tide line along shore, but on exposed 
black lava rocks in rough water. Occasionally cooked in irau when there was 
famine or war and taro and sweet potatoes were scarce. 

Cooked with boilft) meats long enough tor the gelatin to be softened or dissolved 
Substituted for lima, buna when cooked with squid or octopus. 


Kmu clean (Maui only) 






Ahtifettia cottcfana J. Ag. 



Appondix A: Limu Database 
Page 3 out of 59 



UMUNAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE AI£0 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


akiaki. limu 


Chamberlain 


M 












1 jki'aki, limp 


Abbott 1996 


» 


Baked with chicken at fish in imu. 


clean and awMwtki (Maui), limi 
ko'ele'ele (but name also used tbr 
Outer species like 
Gyntfbfgangrus ). 






Afinfehto cencirma J.Ag. 


"afcTalu. Itfliu 


Abbtml996 


is 


Geferinizea an htfflUrtg, used ia scews or in imu. 










Bki'ati, limu 


Gannon 


Interview 


Used Ul cursing. 










AKRJLA 


Doty 


[ 


(Chamberlain) 










'AKO'AKO'A 


Duly 


1 


Coral or all jointed corals 










ako'ako'a 


Setehell 


97 


Coral, homed coral in particular, and one or all jointed coralline Ltmu 










AKUILA 


Doty 


1 










Chyfach^P rigvns (Ag.) J. Ag. 


afcuila 


Pukui 


16 


Same as KJH£ r a red. seaweed.. 


kibe 






Cbyiacladia sp. 


akuila T ]imti 


Reed 


86 




timukihe 






Chyiocicdia rigens? {A£}J.Ag. 


akuila, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












akuila. limu 


MacCaujjhty 
L917 


J52 


Anfldible species. 


Itmukihe 






Chylocla^o rigtnx (Ag.)J, Ag, 


ALAALAULA 


Doty 


1 










Cotti&mMueiieri foietzing 


aiaalaula 


Henriques- 
Peabndy 


B63 












alaalaula 


SHCtltU 


97 










Perhaps Codi'UM sp. 


^iflfHaiiiii limu 


Chambertaia 


32 


Chamberlains list includes Andrew's Dictronmy limu namte and names ftom 
oihei sources 










ALANI 


Doty 


J 


LIMU MAKE? (SefcbeU) 








Diciyom spp.; D. acuBlobn distorts J Aganih, 
D. ehcholoam (Hods) Lamx, 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 4 out of 59 



UMU NAME 


SOU&CE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


alani 


Mamuder 


41,42,45 










Z>fcfy0ta anilii&ira J. Agardh, D. barlafresii, H 
ymdvicensis Sond-Kuetz, 


aJani 


SetcheU 


97 


Same as limu make (???) 






felea plant 




aferu 


fttfcui 


ffi 


Brown seaweeds (Dictyota spp. ), regularly divided into narrow segments, "nicy 
are so bitter thai they will (aim other seaweeds put with them and can be eaten hu 
little and hy same are considered poisonous. 

Medical kahunas used thefli in small quantities to treat asthma. This name is 
sometimes qualified hy the Ktmskaiand'alB. Also maka and false ITpoa. Cf. 
fcfl alani 




maka and faise ITpoa 


An 0*flhu tree (Pelea saruiwicensis or P. 


Djcty&la .vpp. 


alani 


Henri quw- 
Peabody 


S63 












alani. limn 


MacCaugbey: 
1917 


!4B 


Seldom used foe food bv tta natives, as iher are bitteT. 








Ltfc&ota ocutifoba J. Agatdh. D. Sandvicensis 
Sqnd--K.ueu D. spinutosa Harv, D. dlchotcma 
(Hude.) Lam x. 


alani. limu 


Chflmberlflin 


32 












alani. limu 


Reed 


86 


Sometimes called false limu lipoa, which it resembles slightly. It is eaten but 
seldom, as it is bitter 


false lipoa 






Dictyota awtifob distorta, Dictyoia dichufama 
(Huds.) Lamx. 


alani. limu 


Gartuon 


Interview 


One type is edible and the other is poisonous (and used for stunaing fish). Both 
resemble Epda but are softer 










alaula 


Sefcfcett 


97 


Probably aalaula 


aalaula 






CoftiwttAfMlteii Kuetzing 


alaula, limu 


Ned 












Cadium tomentosnm (Huda) Stackh. 


alolo, limu 


Pukui 


207 


Alum^Potamogeionptctiiuitas (pronunciation not ceitain). Ni'ihau 








Patamogeton pecUnatvs 


"anapanapa 


Pukui 


24 


Red seaweeds (fjelidaim spp. ); small, stiff, blanching, edible plants. Also limu 
loloa. 


hmu Joloa 




Hawaiian soap plant {Colubrina asiatica \ 


Gefidixm spp. 


apeepe'e 


Puiui 


H 


Rare var. of ffpe epe'e, a seaweed. 










AUPUPU 


Deny 


1 










Grijfilhsia ovatis Hair.? 


aupupu 


SetcMl 


97 












aupupu 


Henri ques- 
Peabody 


863 













Appandix A: Limu Database 
Page 5 out of 5& 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


aupflpfi 


Pokoi 


33 


Same as mo'opuna-a-ka-Lrpoa, a common seaweed. 


mo'opima-a-ka-IIpoa, mo'c-puna 




same as makaloa. a shellfish, geneifcl name for 
sheBfisli with tona; sham edges @7wis intermedia. 
Qmpa morum ) Also aupupu, pupu. "awa. 


GrijjfUhsia sp. 


au-pupu, Limu 


MacCaughey 
19L7 


154 




lirriii ttioo-pima, limn ka-Lipaa 






Griffithsiaovcrhs Harv.? 


aapapa, Jituu 


CJaEitwrtam 


J2 












aupupu, limu 


Reed 


*7 




limu inoopuaa, limu ks-Jipoa 






Grifflihsia sp.? 


awaawa 


Henriques- 
Ptabody 


863 












awikiwikl 


Henrique s* 
Peabody 


863 












"AW1KI-W1KI 


Doty 


1 










Gymnogongrus; G.vermicularisam&ricanQ J. 
Ag., G. daxcipdnaiis (Bory) J. Ag, 


'■jwikiwiki 


Pukui 


35 


Sftmeaskfl'eleeLe. 


ko'ele ds 




vine, Caniivalia 


GjJftwicgortgms 


awiiii-wiki, linLu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


150 




limu ua+ua-Loli, Limu ekaha-kaha r 
limu fcc-ele-eLe, Limu nei 






G^mHo^ongn^vcnwicn/of/j, G. americcma. C 
discipiinaris [Bory) ]. Ag. 


awikiwiki, limu 


Reed 


R7 


Used in love-making chantis in ancient days. 


limuuauaLuli, limn ekahackaha, 
limu koelcele or koele , Limu nei 






GvmHo^twjghdLrvtfWfrtti'ar/jaftiericawiT J.Ag., 
Gyntnogongpts d:cip!ina!is J.Ag. 


ehau 


Swchell 


97 












ehau, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












ekaha 


Sttchell 


97 








parasitical plant and fem-like plant 


tfalitnedn spp. 


EJCAHA 


EWy 


1 










Holimeda 


ELtAHAEKAHA 


Holy 


2 










Gytttnogottgrtis vtmicuiaris amtrcana L 
Agaidh, G. dLutipIinaliJt (Bray) J, A&indh 


etfltoekaha, Limu 


Reed 


87 




limu uaualoli, limu koeleple or 
koele, limu awikiwiki, Limu mi 






GyBBtygOJTgruSvermiCuiariJttatteritrpfia J.Ag.. 
Gymnogangna diciplirurfis J.Ag. 


Ekahakaha 


Abb«iL947 


204 










Gelit&um 



Appendix A.: Limu Dataiasa 
Page S out of 5& 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


latin names 


ekahakaha 


Setcuell 


98 


Maui Dame for Hawaii's akiaki and fcoeleele 










EKAHAKAHA 


D«y 


1 


(Maui) 




iktaJd (Hawaii); fcoeleele 
(Hawai'i; ex Chamberlain 
iide Setehell) 




Gelidiumfilicmum BQrv r G.pusillutti; 
?AhnftMa cancinna J. Ag.\Gelidiwrt; 
Gymnogoa£rus 


^kahakalm 


Pukui 


39 


Var. name Tor limu laioa and limu uaua loli. 


JifflU ]olna P limu uaua lob' 


limu loloa, limu uaua Lob 


juvenile or small birds nest fem ("ikana) 




ekaha-kaha, Ijitm 


MscCaujhey 


130 




limu ua-ua-lali, limu ko*ele-ele, 
limit awiki-wiiii, limu net 






Gymnogangrus vtrmicuStstts; G. amerlcana ; G. 
(hyciptinan'S (Bc-ry) J. Ag 


ekahs-kaha, limu 


MacCaughey 
19]? 


150 




limu Idloa 






Getidtum anenuatum, G, corwutn, G.felicinum 
Bory. G. itilhcoaon (J. Agordh) Kuetz, G. 
iaHJoliwn Bom., G carlii&gimwm (L.) Gull.. (?. 
pttsittum (StacJA.j Le Iol. 


ekahakaha, limu 


Reed 


37 


Sometimes pounded and mixed ■tvith limpets and sometimes cooked with chili 
peppers and salt 


limu loloa 






Gekdium filieimtm? Bory 


ekahakaha, limu 


Neal 












GeUdivm 


ekaaakaha, ]imu 


Chamberlain 


32 












eleau 


Setehell 


9B 


Found at low Ode just above the water One lo two feel long, and is used as a 
substitute for banana leaves whsjr cooking pig in "native fashion. " Only the pans 
of Sttnu ihut ore smeared on the pig ore eaten. 










dean, liniu 


Reed 


S6 




limn akiaki 






Ahnfetdtlaconciww J. Agardh 


eleau, timu 


MacCaugacy 
1917 


150 




limu aki-aki 






Ahnfeldtia cancirtna J. Agarrih 


deck 


Setehell 


98 


This Itmu is always prefixed with, the term ■'limu.*' (Many other limu are referred 
to by using only the special designation). Fresh water type lasts two days, salt 
water lasts a week 

Slippery and fognnt, can bo smelled from a distance (Puakoqlau, Moloka'i). 










eleele 


Simpson 














ele-ele, limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


139 


Easily garnered, considered edible by rlie natives. Anton; the most abundant mo 
lopidar, and most widely used of all (he edible algae. 








Entetomorpha fitxuosa iWnlfen) J. Agardh. E. 
ffcpkirkii J. AgardlL, E inle$Tinalis (Linnaeus) 
Link, & Unza (LiniUCiuO J. Aaardh & pSamasa 
[Mullet} J. Agardh E. prv!ijhra (Muller) I. 
Agardli £ /wtwAuo Kuetz.. E. comprtssa (L.) 
Grev. 



Appendix A; Lirnu Database 
Pag* 7 out of 59 



L1MU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


ele-ele. limu 


MacCaughey 


476 


"the black or dart: limu" 








Fnleromorphoflexuosa (WuLfefl)! Agardh 


eltdc.limii 


Neal 












k'nieromorpha 


eleele, limu 


Reed 


86,87 


Grow near Hie shore. Most always be floated or dipped out of (htwaftr into pails 
because it always growe at the moulfi or&ueams in the quiet bracfcish water, so is 
full of sill or sand. Dropped into hot soup or gravy as it ia about 10 be served. 

Soaked and washed in fresh water, slightly salted, and served uncooked with poi 
ami fish or meata. Sometimes it is ripened by soaking iorrwenty-fpnr hours or 
more una! it becomes yellowish, slimy, and developed a. rank odor. 

Dried and put on boils or sometimes used fresh and moist to poultice boils.. 
Pounded with limu paUwai and salt and tied on cots and bruises. 


limu pipilajii 






F-nterntarphn Jlexuosa (WulTen) J. Agardh E. 
Hophrkii J. AnardK. E- inleslinalis (Linnaeus) 
Link, £, {\r\za (Linnaeus) J. Agardh E. ph/mosn 
(Mullei) J. Agardh, £. prolifera (Muller) J. 
Agardh, £. tubuiosa ECuetz.,£. compressa (LJ 
Grev 


clcele, limu 


Miller 












Enterofnorpha 


ELE-ELE 


Doty 


1 










Enttromorpha cotnpressa (L.)Grev. r £. 
inleslitoKts (Linnaeus) Link 


'ELEAU 


Doty 


1 










AhtfeMa conciwia J, Ag, 


'eleau 


Ppkui 


40 


Perhaps same as 'nti'ski, 3 seaweed. Maui. 


'akiaki 






Ahnfettiaconcinm J, Ag. 


'flle'cle 


Ah Chun 


Interview 


Mullet eat the young 'ele'ele. Awa kolamoho eat the long Limu. Laniakea's kau is 
Jnly - August. 










'ele'ele 


Ma grader 


27 










Enteromarpha sp. 


ele'ele 


Putui 


40 


Long, filamentous, grits, £diWe SttWttAsEnierttrmirpimpFtiJjferp ), Some 
kinds HTe among the most papular in Hawaii, being eaten raw as TOndiments el 
feasts. Called pipTlani nn Maui. 


pipHani (Maui) 




cooking banana variety, tare, sugar cane, sweet 
potato 


Enleromorpffpprolifera (Muller) J. Agardh 


'ele'ele, linra 


FCaina 


Interview 


Also limu lauoho. 


limu lauoho 








'ele'ele. limu 


Kaalakaa 


Audio 


[f theft is fresh water, get. If there is no fresh water, no limu 'ele'ele. 










ele'ele. limu 


Abbott 1996 


13.17 


Cleaned in salt waier, then in fresh water and soaked overnight. Add salt. 


tmluHio 






Etitcrotmrphappo/ijera (bMltr) I Agardh E. 
spp. except coarse Large Ones. 



u 

j 8 

2 o. 



is J ^ 
•go I 

sis 
gig 

■Hi 

-" r> ^ 



« o & 

< I a 
■M« 

ill 
^ i 2 



in 

*£'? 

3 ■= S 

ill 

Hi 

is S3 

gig 
HI 

-11 
ill 



2 

3 

8. 

i 

s 

E 

3 

I 






| 

P 

JS 

h 



II 

jf 
ii 

si- 



3 .1* 

Is 
11 

I 1 






.a £ » 

l* = 

° s S 

I! 1 
in 



a 

| 

It 
8 a 

n 

? i 



11 

£ i 
II 

O it 

it 



II 



■A 



«■ s 

S.« 

s.:« 

is 

h 

i i 






IP 



ga 



g -.3 



?1 

11 



■8 ,B. 
1.1 






J 

I 
8 



iH 

si -s = 
_■» 5 J 

-I!! 

Iff 

hi 

'«*■ 

II! 

s i I 

e i S 



Appendix A: l*imu Datsbaae 
Page 9 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


&UAAED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


General Limn 


Kaina 


Interview 


Mats' alee is the main spot for limu in. Uiuia. HfiJia docs not have certain limu lib 
Lahaurn side lite huluhulnwaena, c-go, etc. Those types of limu like dirty water, 
where Hana te& clean wnicr. 

Lots of rain makes the limu grow long. The ' opu of the enenue has limu that you 
can rinse and eat with poke. 










General Limu 


Keohokalole 


Video; 
AM 


■Ohilimakffma''ema^Bkekai. Ennui, nui ka lepo. NuikalunumaK2ne'ohe. 
Remembers 'ele'eleandhuluhuluwaena. 










General limn 


Alt Quin 


Interview 


!M#nawea, waiwai'eole, li peepee, tohu, lipoa, huln hohj waina, maneo too. 
owufca W8k», tula, opihi (2 types), node, ribbon. Kan - season thereof. Kihei - 
Garden of Eden. Turtle feed from July to September at Kawailoa, ahu. 

Pollution and overharvfcsung changed the hmu. His kumu was mostly Hater 
Ho'opi'i Kenolio - "Limu Lady orMaui" - Kuiei. Foreign limu. is taking overthe 
reefs. When gutting fish, you can observe the types of hmu thai fish eat. 










General itmu 


Kaalakea 


Audio 


Kupekope i ka limu ahajua po opao.'Oko'akaliiou i keia manawu. 










HANA 


Doty 


2 










Hypma armata (Mert.) J. Agerdh 


hana, limn 


MacCguEhey 
1917 


151 


Amongthe must commonly eaten of the Hawafian seaweeds. Especially relisher 
when boiled with octopus. 








Hypnea omata (Meet.) ]. Agardh 


HAULA 


Doty 


2 


(very rare, Maui) 








NttophyNtm? 


hi'ula 


Pukui 


61 


See limu ha" nia, 




littiu hauls 






hanla, limn 


Reed 


SB 


Very rare, only one small specimen obtained from a native on Maui. 








NitophylluM? 


hS'ula, limu 


Pukuj 


207 


a red seaweed fyfartensiafragilis ). 








Marlensiafiagiiijs Harvey 


nfTulelani 


Pukui 


61 


A fresh^water alga found in laro patches. 










hanlelani, limn 


Reed 


67 


Found in the cooL swift mountain streams or pools. 










HAvVANE 


Doty 


2 










Pofysipkaniamaftis Honker et Harvey ex Harvey 
IMl.SreMociadii,? 


hfiwane 


Pukui 


62 


A small, fine, red seaweed tpatyxiphonitt $pp. ), consisting of breaching filaments 
form ing dense tufts. 






tfui of the loulu, considered delicious to ear. Also the 
tree itself. 


Potysiphonia spp. 


hawane, lunu 


Reed 


sa 










Strebdodnditi? 



Appendix A; Limu Database 
Page 10 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


hftwane, limu 


fcesd 


BS 




limupualu 






Poiysipktmia mollis Hooker K Harvey ex Harve> 
IS47 


oawane. limn 


MacCaujdiey 


L34 




Limupu-ahj 






Potysiphtmia mollis Hooker et Harvey ex Harvcj 
1S4? 


hioakea 


Haanio 


Audio 


Limu kama'Sina o Ktma. ULu polaba maka pohaku pfihoehoe. Kopetc-pe me lea 
p&hi, kuiikahele, LimukaikelS. 'a'ole 'aipa'a lite me ka npe'epe'e..." 'A'ala 










hiiuula 


Selchel] 


n 












hiiiaylfl 


tiflgnio 


Audio 


Limu ltama''iina o Kima, Ulu pataba ma ka pohaku paboehoe. Xopekope cut ka 
pahi P Wi ilea hale. Lurra kaikEfi, 'a'ale 'flipa'a likemckaTipe'epe'e..." 'A'ala 
*ono. 










hinaulfl 


HeiuiqueS- 
Pesfaxjy 


86"3 












HINA'ULA 


Doiy 


2 


(Chamberlain) 










hin a 1 rila 


Pufeui 


71 


A kind of seaweed. 










hirtaula, Limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












holoawai, liitiu 


PukuL 


207 


A fresh water moss. 










HOLOMOKtr 


Doty 


2 


fdumberlsin) 










holtHnoku 


Setchell 


99 












holomofcu, limu 


Chamberlain 


tt 












HONA 


Doty 


2 










Hypnea mdijka J. Agardh 


hona 


Sctchell 


99 




limnhuxia 






ffypnea nidi/ica J. Agardh 


horrii (limu hoiiu), 
Limu 


Ahbon 1996 


M 


Limu kala is kiKiuti lo be eaten by turtles, probably accounting for the name Limu 
titmu. 


Limu kala 






SorgtXSum xpp. 


hoonunu 


Setchcll 


99 










Lanrenpia obtusa var. racemoifa (Huds j Lams. 



Appendix A: Ij.rau Database 
Page 11 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


HQONUNU 


Doty 


2 


(Puna, Hawaii) 








iMurencia abiusa var. racemosa (Huds,) Lams r 


ho'Ottunu 


Pukui 


273 


A seaweed fcutrentia obtwa vm. racemosa >. Cf. llpe'e. 








[jua-ettcia ablasa var. raCitttosa (Huds.) Lamx. 


huuhuakai 


Setchcll 


99 












hnahuaksi 


Piunii 


fi4 


A varies of seaweed 










HU'AHITAKA! 


Doty 


2 


sponge (ex Chamberlain fide Setcbdl) 










huahuakai, limn 


CKatnberlam 


32 












hfiai, huwai 


Pukui 


84 


A kind of seaweed $odiym ). 






A shellfish of the hMwai family 


CotBum 


HULU 


Doty 


2 










Ceramium tfawlauM Agardh; Cemroceras 
ciavtttaOim (C. Aeardh) Montague 


hub 


Pukui 


90 


Same as hulu 'ilio, nahawele, pohuluhulu, n seaweed- 


hulu ilia, nahawele, puhuluhulu 








hulu, limu 


MscCaughcy 
1937 


154 




limu milu-ilio, limu hulu wawae* 
iolc 






dramium clcrvulomm Agardh 


huh, limu 


Reed 


86 




limu huluilio, lintu hulu wawae- 
igle 






Czntrocerais ciavuiaitim (jC AganiftJ Monuigre 


huluhulu 


Pukui 


90 


Kinds of seaweeds and mosses. 










huluhulu-a-' lolc 


Pukui 


90 


Same as hulu "ink. 


bulu 'Lule 








huluhulu waena 


Pnt«i 


90 


An irregularly branching, dark-red seaweed QraisioapiafiHfina ) villi many 
narrow wprrente. It is commonly eaten and is sold in some maricetev Abo pakek- 

WQfl. 


pakele-a-wa'a 








HULUHUUJWAEN 
A 


Doty 


2 


(all but Kaua'i) 








Graielottpiajiticina (Lamoroux) C, Agardh 


Huluhulu waefla 


Abbott 1947 


206 


{Hawaii) 








GwtttoHpiti 


huluhulmvaena 


Magruder 


73 










Grateifupipjilicifia {Lamorous) C. Agardh 



Appendix A: Linui Database 
Page 12 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


huluhuluwaeofl 


AhQuin 


Interview 


Withake. With squid. 










huluhuluwaena 


Kaaiakea 


Audio 


Mixed with ate. 










huLuhuluwaena 


Ewaltka 


Audio 


Ma Knhala Hilton. Ulp pti me ka limu uliuli Ho'ohui 'ia me he ake. 1 kaJoni 
hutahuluwaejm, 5 katuii att. Ulaulakeia limu. 










hi&ihuluwaena 


Kama 


Interview 


Mixed with ake. 










huluhuluwaena 


Setchell 


93, 95, 99 


Hair-like limu. Eaten with opihi m Hilo. 


Pakacfcawaa (Maui) 






Grateionpiajilm"" (Lamnragx)C. Agardh 


huluhuluwaena 


Gannon 


Interview 


Grows on coral Her grandmother was the "ake person" of her time >■ she was 
famous for making die huluhuJuwaena -with nke (raw beef liver) for everyone. 
Then fcer moibtf (Aunty Edith) became tht ''ate person". 










huiu-huhi-waena, 
limu 


MacCaughcy 
1917 


154 


Thii name is used on Hawai'i. Both name® are used on the intermediate islands. 


limu pska-ele-awa'a 






Graieloupiafilicina (LamoTOtw) C. Agardh 


hutuhuluwaena, limu 


NeaJ 












(jratetoupia piicina ([.amimKiuv) f* Agnrrih 


tiuhihiiluwaeira, limu 


AtbonL996 


9 r 13, 25 


Cleaned in sail water, then in fresh water and chopped- Add salt. Transplanted 
from Honokowai, Lafeabm Maui fE. Williamson) or by Mrs, Sam Nowlein from 
Moloka'tto WBikddfor LiFuokalajii. 

Brought to Waikiki for Lili'u from either Honokov/ai. Maui or Moloka j r 


pakeleawa'a (Maui and 
Moloka' i), ake limu (moat 
common used with ake). 






Gmiefottpiajiiicirui (Lamouroux) C. Agardh 


huluhiiluwaeiia, limu 


Reed 


37 


This name ia in very general use an Hawairand! Maui, bur both names am 
common on Oahu. Crow near the shore. 


limu pak&eleawaa 






GraftioupiGfil\c\r\a (Lamouronx) C. Agardh 


huluhuluwaena, liinu 


Howard 


Interview 


Picks up this Limu at Punalu'u Eeach (Hawai'i) growing in the shallow urea in flu 
sand (where there is fresh water springs under ground). 






Gra 


GraldoupujJUicina (LamOtiTOux) C Agardh 


hxtuhala n^kine 


Henri ques- 
Psabody 


if.: 1 












hului'i 


Heiuiqnes- 
Peabody 


S63 












Imiu i'i 


Pntui 


90 


A kind of seaweed. 










huiu^iio 


Bryan 












CiMhpkrtra 


hulii -ilia 


Bryan 












EcttKfvpuS 



Appendix A; Limu Database 
E>age 13 out of 59 



UMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


huui-ilio 


Doty 


2 










CkKfopboramttdz Kttctz. oiCfsaeiQimrpfta 
artiennina (Bury) Kuteing" Jtitiiti rubens; 
Sligeoc hnlum omo^num TZ.uitz.^Centroceras 
c/nWorum (C. Agardh) Moniagne; Eciocarptts 
spp. ; Ceramittm ctawiatum Agaidh; 
Eaocarpus indic\is Sonder 


huluilio 


Henriqqes- 
Peabody 


263 












huhj'Tlio 


Pukui 


90 


Aftne, vubranclLed, green seaweed £fuKtomorpha wWe nraVra ), looking much 
like Cladopbora nitida. Also 'Ilia, nahawele. 




Alsa'uio. nahawele 




Ouxiotaorpha anterinina (Bory) Kutzing 


hulu ilia 


Pukui 


90 


A fine, nonedibk. brown seaweed ftphaetiariQ iribuloides ), densely billed, 
sharcer and darker brown than Ectacarpus 








Sfthacelaria Xribaioides 


hulu "ilLo 


Pukui 


90 


Some kinds atPoiysiphonfa seawwds 








Potysiphtmia 


liulu '[lio 


Pukui 


90 


A fine, feathery, green, ftesh'watet alga^ig^ocloniMmffmoenidm), found in 
streams and ditches; said to be edibk 








Stigeocl&nitxtt amoemtm Kuetz. 


liuk 'Hie 


Pukui 


50 


A fiat, Ted seaweed pWrwera* cfitnilatum ), forming short, dense, regularly 
branching tufts, with tiny forked rips; not edible. AIsd hulu, pflhulunuJu, 
wgwac'iole. LiL.dogfiir 




Also hulu, puhuluhulo, 
TVs was 'idle 




Cenrroceras clavulatwn (C. Agardh) Montague 


huhi 'Difl 


Pukui 


90 


Fine, branching, edible brown seaweeds fictocarpus spp. ), farming short, olive- 
brown clumps 








Erlocarpux Spp. 


hulu'llio 


Pukui 


30 


A fine, branching, gretn seaweed Ciadophora nltliia ), forming fle-xible, long, 
bright-green tufte; »id to be edible 








Qacfophwanitida Kueu. 


huluijjo 


Sacheil 


99 










Jtwla rttbsns 


hulu-jJio, limu 


IdacCaughey 
1917 


141 


This and several other species are used locally by the naurves for food, chiefly on 
Main and Hawaii. 


limu ilio, Urmi mami 






Clpdopfiora amentiina (Bory) Kuetz. 


hulu-ilio, limu 


MucCaughey 
1917 


14L 


Sometimea used Cor food. 








Ciadophora nitida Kuetz. 


hulu-ilio, limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


146 




lima akA-akoa 






Eciocarpus Iwtitus Sender 


hulu-ilio, limw 


MaeCaughey 
1917 


139 


Grows in brackish ponds by the se& eaten by only a few natives, & cosmopolitan 
nf species with many varieties. 








Stigeoclanlum (Btioenwn Kuetz. 


huhj-ilio, limu 


MacCai*gbey 
1917 


L54 




limu hulu, limu liulu wuwae-iole 






Cttatnium clavulatum Agartth 


hulu ilio 


Magmder 


4J 










Gfjfordia brwiariiatfpio 



Appendix A: Linfu. Database 
Pago Ifl out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


huhi'iiw 


Garmofi 


Interview 


This limu is soft like wool (recogroTed from picture m Kfagmder back). 










huluilio. limu 


Neai 












EctOCflrpys 


huluilio. limp 


Reed 


86 


Not widely used 1 ; only local on several islands, chiefly on Hawaii and Maui, and 
this name is applied to several species sligntly resembling each other. It means 
dag's hair. Grow Dear the shore. 


limn hulu, limu hulu wawae-iole 






Ce/ttroceras clavulafum (C. Agardh) Montague 


huluilio, iunu 


Rcod 


fit 


Grow near the shore 


limn ilio, limu manu 






Chaexomorpha tmxennina {Eoiy) Kulzing 


huluilio, limu 


Reed 


36 


Grow near the shore. 


limuak&akoa 






Ei'UXarpus iftdicus? Sender, Eclocarpus sp.? 


huluilio, limu 


Reed 


38 


This grows m brackish water pools by the sea and is eaten, by only a few 
Hawaiiam;. Grow near the shore. 








Stigeot/onnax &p. ? 


huluilio, limu 


Reed 


36 










Ciadophara nilida Kuete. 


huluilio, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












hulu manu 


Pukui 


90 


Green seaweeds fCcwftrpa &pp. ). growing Like Land plants, with roots, prostrate 
stems, and leaflike divided fronds: not edible. Also "ai-a-ka-lionu, hulu una, 
Em eh. 




'ai-fi-ka-honu, milu moa, 
limoa 




Cou/erpp spp. 


hutarnoa 


Pukui 


90 


Same as hulu itianu. 


tiuhimaau 








hulu puaa 


Pukui 


90 


A small, matted red seaweed Qpyri&a spinttta >, its many branches covered with 
short bristles, ft is rather eomnuni in shallaw water near shore. It is eaten in Souti 
Hawaii, but not generally elsewhere. 








Spyridia spirteMa 


HULLTUAA 


Doty 


3 


(S. Hawaii) 








Spyridia spinel/a 


hulupuaa, limu 


Reed 


& 


Not in general use, but eaten in die southern pan of Hawaii. 








Spiridie spinelto 


HULUWAWAE- 
IOLE 


Doty 


3 


(Reed) 








Cemroceras dominium (C- Agardh) Mbntagne 


hulu wawae-iole, limn 


MacCaugney 
1917 


154 




limu bulu>ilio, limu hulu 






Ce ramiam clavulafum Agardh 


hulu wawae-ioie, liimi 


Reed 


ae 




limu huluilio, limu hulu 






Ceniroceras ilavalatum (C Agurdh) Me-ntafne 


HUNA 


Doty 


3 


(Kona, Oahu, Kauai, Mololai) 








ijypnea armata (Men.) 1. Agardh; Hypnza 
nidi/lea J. Agaidh 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 15 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


buna 


Magnifier 


79 










Hypnea cervicomis I Agardh 


huna 


Bryan 




(lee Oahu, Kauai, Molokai) 








Hypnea 


hiMia 


Pukui 


91 


Common, fine, red seaweeds fiypnea spp. ), irregularly and more or less densely 
branching, (homy touting, eaten cooked, famishes a ioadcottoidwbta boiled. 








Hypnea spp. 


huna 


Setch-sll 


100 


Stewed with meat. 


limu huna 






Hypnea nidifica J. Agardh 


huna 


Gannon 


Interview 


Decant eat this type of limu {recognized &am picture inMagruderboOkj. 










huna, limu 


Heal 












Hypnea 


huna, limu 


MacCaughey 
19L6 


476 


"die concealed or hidden limV 








Hypnea sp. 


huna, limu 


Chamberlain 


12 












huna. limu 


Abbott 19% 


n 


Gelatinizes DA heating, used in stews Ol in imu. 










huna, limu 


Reed 


&7 


Found drifted on sand or rocks. Grow near the shore. Occasionally cooked in imu 
when there was famine or war and two and sweet potatoes were scarce. 

Cooked with boiled meats long enough for the gelatin to be softened or dissolved 
Especially priwd for boiling with squid at octopus. Sometimes boiled and the ho 
uirusion given for stomach ache. 








Hypnea n/dijicaJ. Agardh, Hypnea armata 
(Men.) J. Agardh 


HUNE 


Doty 


3 










Hypnea nidijtca J. Agardh 


hunc 


Seichell 


100 












hunt limu 


Chamberlain 


n 












HUNEHUNE 


Doty 


3 


(Chambgrl»ui) 










hunehime 


Setehell 


100 












ttunehune 


Pukui 


91 


Same as huna, a seaweed. 


huna 






Hypnetispp, 



Appendix A: Lima Database 
Page 15 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYMOMYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


hunehuiie, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












hupekohola 


Pufaii 


92 


A variety of seaweed. 










buwae 


Selchell 


100 


Perhaps spelled nuwai. Expanded species ofCotHum 


huwai? 






C&c&ym spongiosum Harvey 


HUWAI 


Doty 


3 










Ccntium spongiosum Harvey 


1HAU 


Doty 


1 


(Chamberlain) 










j'i 


Hcnriqa-es- 
Peabody 


863 












iliati 


Kjina 


Interview 


Lawalit or boiled and (hen Jed to the enenue. It gives tiiem diarrhea. Come back 1 
2 days later and hook them with die same limu tied to the hook. Also gives pig 
diarrhea. TF in the sun, turns yellow, 










ilio- 


Bryan 












dadaphora 


jjjft. limu 


MacCaughey 
]917 


J4J 




litntt hn)u-i]ic, limn manu 






Cladaphoro attlervviTQ (Bury) Kuetz. 


ilio, Limu 


Reed 


S6 




limu huluilio. limu many 






Cfwelamorpho anterwina (Bory)K.utzing 


ILiO 


Doty 


3 










Chcteiomorplta antemvna (Bory)Kutzing; 
Oadaphora 


'Ilia 


Ptikui 


99 


A seaweed, same as some of the hulu "ilioJ Chaetamorpha anteiwina ) 


hulu 'Rio 






Chxtomorpha antemna (Bory)KurzinE 


[LIOHA 


Doty 


3 


Probably ILIOHAA. 








Vtw 


ilioHfl 


Setehell 


100 


Species of limu with broad leaves, be limu Lau pakhjdeiia 








Probably Ufva sp. 


Dioha'B 


Pnkui 


99 


Same as Epahapalift, pahapaha, sea lettuce QJtva and related genera) 


Epahapaha, pahapaha, sea lettuce 
(JJfva and related genera) 






Utvo and related genera 


iliohaa. limu 


Ch»mbeiUin 


32 












KA KANAKA 


Doty 


3 


or KA-KANAKA-O-MANITAKEPA (Hanalei, Kauai) 











Appandix A: Limu Database 
Page 17 Out of 59 



UMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


ka-kflnnka, limu 


Pukui 


207 


A soft, sometimes gelatinous bluc-grecn alga tyostac commune ) sometimes 
covering the ground in the wet season as small sfcppeiy balk, especially at 
Hanalei, Kauai. 

Alan limu ka-tfinpka-o-Majiu'flktpfl. Lit., nian -striking mass, so called because 
people bk said to slip on it and fall- 




Also Limu k&-kannka<a> 
Manu'akepa 






KAHAKALA 


Doty 


3 


(Chamberlain) 










kahakala 


Setcnell 


100 












k&hakala. limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












kahili 


Pukui 


112 


A seaweed, probably Turbinoria ornate . 








Turbinaria omnia (Turner) J. Agardh 


kahili 


Gannon 


Interview 


This is the really taugh limu that looks like a kahili (furbinano orTtata ). 








Turbinaria vmttta (Turner) J. Agardh 


KALA 


Doty 


y 










Sargassum spp.; Sar%asswTt echinocarpum J, 
Agardh." Sargassum cymoswn Agardh; 
Sargasswn potyphyHum J. Agardh; Twbinaria 


kala 


AhQuin 


Interview 


Enenue feed on kala, ribbon, etc. 










kale 


Ma grader 


5L..S3 










Sargassum echinacarpum ). Agardh, 5 
obtusifohum J. Agardh,.?. polyphyiium J. 
Agerdh 


kale 


Pukui 


120 


See Lima kala, seaweeds. For a pun on kala (plan! ami limu) see Neal 367, 




limu kala 


Surgeonfisli, unicorn fish, Tcuthidae; same as pua 
kala, prickly poppy; sweet potato, qualified, with 
kc'oke'oandponi;samefts 'Skala, same as 
pakalakala, a tern 




kala 


Biyarl 












Sargassum 


kola 


Setchell 


100 


Always prefixed, by the word limu- Ceremonial use of purification. SonK say it IS 
eaten, others disagree 








Sargiasum echinocarpum J. Agardh, 
Turbintvia omnia (Turner) J. Agardh 


kola 


Simpson 














kala, limn 


MapCaiiBhey 
1917 


L47 


Are used for food (by natives). 








Sargassum ablustfaliian I. Agardh, S. 
aofypfiyltum J. Agardh 5 dvnsvm Dickie. S. 
irpciHjm Dickie. S. echinacarpum J. Agardh, S. 
cym&su/M Ag- 



Appendix A; Lirnu Database 
Page 18 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


5YNONYM5 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


kala, limu 


Handy 


215 


Common, coarse, yellowish brown seaweed with small spiny leaves and round 
"berries'"... Ec is edible though, coarse; it is named kale (spine) because of the little 
spines on the leaves (which look Like miniature holly leaves). 

Because kala also means ,l to loosen", this seaweed has morn' ceremonial uses. 
Thus, when a convalescent warns to be Breed, from all vestiges of his disease, be 
makes a lei of kala seaweed and swims seaward with it round Jus neck, 

allowing the naves to wash it off- withit will be "loosened" the guilt of otheT evi 
causing th« illness Riddle: Ke kala o uia, Ke kala o waena, Ka kala a kai. 
Answer A kala beny r the pua kala, and the limu kala. 










kala, limu 


Neal 












Sargasswn echlnocwpwn J. Agardh, S. 
cymosim Ag, £ polyphyttum I. Agardh 


kala, limu 


Abbott 199G 


11 


Ho^oportopoiio (eat the limu when pau), purification (water, olena, limu kala). 
Lei warn by iolani Luahine for a hula hqe h 








SargptSum Xpp. 


tola, limn 


Pukui 


207 


Common, long, brown seaweeds Gargassum echinoearpwn ) r their stems coveTH 

with snort brunches, bearing rather stiff, twisted, more or less toothed, narrow 

leaves. 

Rarely eagen raw because of toughness (though edible); used in ceremonies to 

drive away flic 1 ""?" fl"d fftflfctain fnraiveness. May he qualified by terms lauli'i 
orlauttui Also'&kala. 




Also Hkala 






kola, limu 


Reed 


BS 


Found drifted on sand or rocks. Dropped into hot soup or gravy as il is about to b 
served. Sometimes are ripened by soaking in fresh water Leaves are separated 
from stems: and floats, as only leaves are eaten. 

More often eaten fresa without any preparation (with raw fish or squid). 
Sometimes broken into small pieces and soaked in fresh water till dark and soft, 
then sniffed into salmon before roasting or chopped with fish heads and salt. 

Sometimes ripened in water with lehoand salt for a few days before eating. Can 
be pounded with sail and bound about bruises and tuts to relieve pain. Used in 
ceremony for illness. 








Seirgas!mnt echinacarpwn J. Agardh, S. 
Cymosian Ag., S. pofyphyHttm J. Agardh 


kala, liniu 


Henriques- 
Peabody 


863 












kala. limu 


Kaina 


Interview 


Certain type is eaten. Some people cook it to soften it. 










kala, limu 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


'A'aie 'ai ia, be maumi a he uTau. Kekahi po'e oki'oki a "at. 










kala r limu 


TildeiL 


133 


Fronds of these two species are ground up into hits and mixed with raw fish lorn 
into small shreds. Boiled with squid, Ehey also regarded it as a great delicacy 








Sargasswn 


kala, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












kala, limu 


Seffhell 


96 


Atonement limu, ceremonial usa. lei- 











Appendix A: Limu Database 
Pago 19 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


kala, limu 


Abbott 1996 


23 


Eaten by pfllani.enenue, kalo. Used for bait Two types -kala-!fliuiui,iala-lauli'i 


limu homi 






Sargaswm eMnOairpitm I. Agardh 


kola, limu 


Qbjtpoii 


Enterview 


Neva ate limu lala, it was used caeiuonially. 










kabj, limp 


Kaanana 


Interview 


Awarding to the old stories, the kukiiu (the chiefs fastest runnere) would use lini 
kala to viTflp lining fish ihsl toe chief destred and bring them tone distances to the 
chitf {and it wouW Sill te toing 










Jtalajimu 


Howaid 


Interview 


She doesn't cat this one. 








Sargassiuii cchietocufpum f. Agardh 


kalawai 


hikvi 


112 


See limu ta la wai. 




See limu kala wai 






kata wai. iutiu 


Pufcoi 


Z07 


One or more kinds of dark green, slippery fresh-water algae (wualh^irogjva 
stfp. } consisting of tows of cyundricaJ cells in unbrancJwd filaments, common to 
fresJi-wafer rivufels, dripping places, and taro patches Also pdJAwai 




.UsopSlSwiH 




Spirngpra spp. 


KALA-LAU-UIU't 


Doty 


3 


(Chamberlain fide Setehell) 










kaJalauliilii 


Setchell 


LD1 












kalalauliilii, limu 


Ch&mberlain 


32 












KALALAUNU1NU1 


Do(y 


3 


Probably - to KALA-LAU-NTJIoeNUNUI. NUJNUI is pidgin 








S&rgtiSsum echinacarpum 3. Aguidh 


kaJftlaumiuiui 


SetelteLL 


10J 












kalaUumiinui, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












KALAWAl 


Doty 


3 


(a flowering plant) 








Nais major 


kalawai, limu 


Reed 


76 


Often called fresh-water lhnu lala Used as a lave potion by saying a magic spell 
learned from a kahuna, eating the limu ami giving some to the desired person. 










kanaloa, limu 


fcapahuletua 


Interview 


A type of edible limu. 










KALIPOA 


Doty 


3 










Griffithsia avnlis Hun - .? 


ka-fiptJa. limu 


Weal 












GisflR/ksia 



Appendix A; Limu Database 
Fags 20 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


ka-|ipoa. limu 


Kfied 


87 


This, ajga is considered a delicacy cm Maui and southern Hawaii, but is very scare 
and spoils very soon, so have not been able to secure enough, to identity the 
species 


limu moc-punn, limu aupupu 






Griffiifisia sp.? 


kfl-lipon, limu 


MuctBughey 
1917 


154 




limu moo-puna, limu au-pupu 






GrijQSthsia ovalis Hon,-.? 


KAU-PAQ 


Doty 


3 










ChnooSp&rafastigatapacifica J. Ag. 


kamia'thl 


ftriyi 


13S 


A coarse, tough seaweed patatawi rvgosa ), Rifled and inedible, resembling 
kauna'oa (Cwwiifn sandwickiana ) in being yellow to gold in color. 


isainoA, 'cksls 




native dodder, jo&Uijit (Vennetida?) 


Gdaxaura ru&ma (Ellis e| ScJauder) LamDTNix 


Lmunc-s 


Setehell 


102 








a wornt that causes universal withering of trees and 
herbs: dodder 


Gctfaxmrti mgosa (Elli&et Solander) Lamoroux 


KAUNOA 


D«y 


3 










Gaiaxaura rugosa (Ellis et Solander) Lammoiw 


keuno'a 


Pukui 


13ft 


A rough seaweed (salaxaura rugasa }, Cf, pSkalakala. 


cicala, kauna'oa 


Cf. paislakaja. 


native dodder, moJhuk (Venueiidae) 


GaiaxGura rvgosa (Ellis etSolander)LaiiiMOiK 


kail pan 


Pukui 


139 


An edibk brown seaueed Chnoospora pact/tea ) T with many slender brandies. 
Alsowawahiwa'a 


wawahiwa'a 


AlsowflwahiwHa 




Chnoospanj pacifica J r Agardh 


kau-pau, limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


148 




limuwa-wahi-wa'a 






Chmospora jastigiata pacifica J. Agardti 


kanpttu. limu 


Reed 


S6 




limu wawahiwaa. 






Ch/Joosporafasrigata pacified J. Ag. 


KEKUWELU 


Duty 


3 


Probably = KE KUWELU 








Gelittium spp? 


kekuwelu, limu 


Reed 


87 




limu kuwelu 






(Jeffdfaiw sp,? 


K£LE 


Doty 


3 


I'Cham&eriainJ 










k-k 


Setohell 


102 












kele, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












KtH£ 


Doty 


3 










Chyfacladia rigerts (Ag.)J. Ag. 


kih 5 


Henriques- 
Pesbody 


S63 













Appendix A: Limu Da t abas a 
Page 21 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


kite 


Pufcui 


147 


A w) seaweed ghylocltNititsp- ) wife jjarrow cylindrical, blanching stems. Also 
akuifa, 


afalLUt 




A small native fern QCiphapieris sqflbrdii }; a variety 
of sweet potato 


Chyi'tn:\at£a sp. 


kite 


Haaflio 


Audio 


' AJ me ka '"opihi. i'a maka. Limu taaa'Sina o Kora. Limu km keli, 'a' oJe "ai 
pa' a like me ka Upe' opc'e. " L A'ala, T oru>. 










kihc.lunu 


1917 


152 




limu akuila 






Cftylactadla rigens (Ag.) J. Ag. 


kihc. limu 


Reed 


86 




limu akujla 






Chyltxlcidia ripens? (Ag.) J. Ag. 


KKALA 


Doty 


3 










Centroceras cluvulamtrt (C Agwdh) Montagne 


kikals 


Settbell 


102 










Cenlroceras citmiiailUH (C. Agaidh) Montagne 


KIKI 


Dotf 


3 


IthamberiaiDj 










kiki 


SeKhell 


102 












tiki 


Pukui 


149 


A seaweed 






A bud resembling a plover; name given a shellfish. 




tiki, limn 


Chamberlain 


32 












kimau 


Henriques- 
Peatod? 


B63 












KlPA-AKAI 


Doty 


1 


Probabiy - to LI PAAKAI 








Asparagopsis sanfordlima Harv. 


KO'ELE 


Doty 


3 


(Reed). See KOELEELE 










kci'e-le 


Pukui 


153 


Sameaska'ele'ele. 


ko'ele'elc 




any variety of large. tou&h "opihi 


(fyitonajupngrus 


ko'clc 


Howard 


Interview 


She picks up this Umu at a place called laupapa ohua (reef with raanini fisii 
babies). This limu is eaten with \>puu. 


ko'ele'elc 






Ahnjhitiopjis flabeWfprmfa (Harvey) Masuda 


kfl'ele, Junu 


Ellis 


Video: 
AM 


Uaua. Utu me ka hl'ufce'iikt 










koele, limu 


MacCaughey 


476 


"the dry w hud Limu" 








Gymnogang rus sp. 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 22 out of 59 



UMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


koele. limu 


Reed 


S7 




limu uauftloli, limu ekahaekaha, 
limu koeleele, limu gwikiwiki, 
limunei 






GymnQSQRgms vermin* foris pnwnacntti I. Ag., 
Gytrtnogottgnts dieiplin&iu (Bory)J. Ag. 


kocleele 


Setcbell 


102 


Name used without term nam attached. Dwarfed and undeveloped fonn nf 
Gymnagongrus . May be an. alternate name for akiaki. 


- 






Gymnogongritf sp. 


koeleele 


HenriquM- 
Peabody 


863 












KO'ELE^ELE 


Doty 


3 


See KOELE (Reedk see AKIAKT 








GymRogongrvs: Gymnogfttgrns vermicularis 
cstterfcana I Ag.: Gymnagongrvs a\sc\ptinalis 
{Bon') J Ag. 


kfl'ele'ele 


Pukui 


133 


Small, red edible seaweeds Gynrogongrus spp. } [Gymnogongrus? J with rather 
thick, flattened stems and branches. 


kfi'ele, m;i, *awikiwiki 


'Swikiwiki, 'ekahakaha, 
ko L ele, limuuaua loli, nei 




(tymnOgtitignis 


ka'ele'ele 


Howard 


Interview 


She picks uplhis limit at a place called laupapa 'fihua (reef with roanini itsh 
tebics). This limu is eaten wib 'opihi. 


ko'ele 






Ahpfi^iopsig Jlabellifbrmis (Haivey) Masuda 


ko-ele-ele, limu 


MatCauEhcy 
3917 


L5Q 




limn ua-ua-loli, limu ekaha-kaha, 
limu awiii-wiki, limu uei 






Gyamagongrus vermicularis, G. cmeriama. G. 
disciplinary <Bory) I Ag. 


koeleele, limu 


ChBinbetlaiii 


32 












kocleclclimu 


Reed 


87 




limu uauaJc-li, limu ekahaekaha, 
koele. limu awiJdwiki. limunei 






Gymnogong/us vermicvlaris omertema J. Ag.. 
Gyntnagongrus dta'pHnaHs (Bory) J L Ag. 


K.OHU 


Doty 


5 










AspuragQpSis sisnfordiana Harv. 


kohu 


AhQuin 


Interview 


Color and ipdine depends on area gathered November , April is fcau Red one aes 
Low iodine. 










kohu 


Ma grader 


59 










Asparogopsis iatiformis (Defrle) Trevaatt 


kohu 


StKbta 


J03 


Always prefixed by die word limu. Kohu means In color or. stain. "One year limu 


limu kuka, lipaaksi (Maui) 






A$paragapsis sanfbrdi£tn a Harv. 


kohu 


Bryan 












Asparagopsis sanfoniicmti Harv, 


kohu 


Miller 














kahu, lutlu 


Kaina 


Interview 


The best. Crisp, strong smell. Lots of rain makes limu grow , ihe kohu can get 
really tone. 










knhu, limu 


Poepoe 


Video: 
TME 


Mo'omDmi has the feet limn kohii. There are two ways to pick limu.: cutting, 
pulling but leaving die roots behind. 











Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 23 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


kchu, limu 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


KGf omole (quart), lima Mm Aia i wuho loakeia limu, 'ula'ula. W*e 'ia ka me 
a pau a ha oku i loko o ka wai pa*akai. I kefcahi Ifi, helele'i mai ka lepo a pau loa 

Amaaaa'e, ■oki'okj.jidjwliow. Ke buki maToe, SemopumaJufiiBekcone, a 
lawe "« i ka mea o lfilo aiaka Limu i luna. '0 lab. aia i lailake kuaiu. 










kohu, limu 


Wong 


Interview 


About four days after ii tains, you «m go get ihc limu ktfiu. This is the main limn 
eaten onNi'ihau. 










kohu, lima 


KBuabjpauis 


Video: 
AM 


Huka J ks limu kohu. 










kohu, limu 


Reed 


86 


This limu is usually called limn kohu, except on Maui, Molokai, and Kanai. ft is. 
often called limu lipaokaiand sometimes limu hpehu. Limn koko is a corruption 
of kohu Grow layout on die carol reefis or on exposed rocks in vie surf. 

Dropped iota hot soup or gravy $5 it is abaaltv be served. Alv.sys poimdsd meH 
as ils being cleaned. 10 fret it from adhering bits of coral, and also so that it may 
be soaked mote thoroughly to remove &e disagreeable bittei flaivor. 

Sometimes mixed whn. inomona. Gonads of sea urchins are sometimes Mixed m 
this limu. 


Emu lipaakai, limu Jicehu. limu 
kuko 






Asparagppsis sanfordiaria fiarv. 


kahu. limu 




Video: 
'AM 


KiViaikamanawak^malonmahopeobauanui. Ho' oku i loko ka wai a at 
kapS, a laila e ho'oma'ema'e a kdpf i ka pa'akni. 










kohu. limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


J52 


It has a variety of Hawai'iau names, limu kohn being the most common. On Mau 
Moluka'i,&nd Kauai it is often called limu lipa-akai, or limn tipthu. 


limu lipa-akai, limu lipehu 






Aspwagapsis Sartjbrdiwa Harv. 


kotai, limu 


Peabody 


863 












total, limu 


Nciil 












Asparagpp&is StmfoniioNQ Harv, 


tefbu, Jhdu 


J?JJJ3 


Video: 
'AM 


Kauai's kohu h loloa (long) Where it is 'oki 'is. O'ahu's kahu is pokopako 
(shoR), 










tohojirwi 


Pntui 


207 


A soft, succulent, small seaweed Qsparagopsis taxifomil ), with densely 
branched funy tops that are tan, pink, or dark red, arising from a creeping stem- 
likc portion; one of ihtbes* liked edible seaweeds, prepared in bolls for market. 

Also limu koko and lot some informants fipehe. ftpchu, fipa'afcai 




Also limu. koko and tor 
some informants lipehe. 
Bpetm, Upa'akai 




AspisraEppzis tpxtfonnis (Delile) Trevisan 


kohu, limu 


Ahi»ttl996 


24 


Two types - kohu Upshe - light colored, kohu toko = dark red (Kautfi 
distinction). Choice limn of ali'i 


limu upaakai (Ni'ihau), Upehe 
and fipa'akai (Maui). 






Asparagopsis laxifarmis (Delile) Trevisnn 


kohu, limu 


AbbauJWo 


9 r 13 


Cleaned in salt water, then in fresh water and soaked overnight. Add safe Milam; 
'iaimLakootapu'olql&'i Two color forms, koko (blood-red) or ufcehe {light- 
colored). 











Appendix A: Iiimu Database 
Page 24 out of 59 



LIMIT NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


tariiu, limu 


Lmd 


Interview 


Method for planting Limu kohu. Tate back the mots {holdfasts) timr. sometimes 
come 0*lt when pickiag this limu, and stuff them into lime holes in the reef where 
limu kohu normally grows. 










kohu, limu 


Howard 


Interview 


Ska picks u$> this limu «t a place called laupapa Htua (reef with manini fish 
fcebies). 








Asparogppsis taxi/amis (Delile) Trevisan 


KOIALE 


Doty 


3 


(Chamberlain.) 










koiale 


SetcnelL 


103 












koiate. limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












KOKO 


Doty 


3 










Asparagopsis sanfordtana Hair.;£flBreflCP"a 
spp? 


koko 


SetcheU 


103 


Soft, young fomi afLaurencia according to some people. 


limu kohu 








koko 


Pukui 


161 


Same as limu. kohu, a seaweed. 


limu kohu 




Same as 'atuko 


Asparagopsis laxijbmis (Delile) Tievisan 


koto, limu 


Pukui 


207 


Same as limu kohu. Lit., blood seaweed. 


limu kohu 






Asparagopsi's laxjjdmis {Deh'Je) Trevisan. 


koko, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












toko, limu 


He run que b- 
Pea body 


863 












koko, limu 


MacCsugkey 
1&16 


476 


"the red limn" 








Asparagopsis Sanfvrdiana Harv. 


koko, limu 


Reed 


86 




Limu koko, limu lipaakoi. limu 
lipehu 






Aspamgopsis Smfordi&itt Harv. 


KOLOA 


Doty 


3 


(Chamberlain) 










koloa 


Setchell 


HO 












kokia. fimii 


Cheoibeilain 


32 












kukae-o-Kaiuapua'a 


Pukui 


176 


Same as lipu'upu'u, a seaweed. 


hpp'upu'u 









Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 25 out of 59 



LIMUNAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


KUKAEPUEO 


Day 


3 


ex Andrews Dictionary (Setchell)- 










kukacpucG 


Setohell 


103 








species of grass 




KULAPEPEJAO 


Dotj 


4 


Distorted Gractlaria cowwtptfoUt} (Setchell) 








GrasiSiiria ct/ranapifolia J, Agardri 


kulapepeiati 


SeicheU 


104 


A distorted Graciiaria coronopifoha . Means earring 










KUMULIMUKALA 


Doty 


4 


iThajflbcrlani) 










kutijjilimakeiij 


StaheU 


J 04 












kiiOnulutiukala, lima 


Chamberlain 


32 












KUMUL1P0A 


Doty 


4 


(Chamberlain) 










tilHTluJipua 


Setchtll 


104 












kuoiulipOa, ]imu 


Chajaberlaifl 


32 












KUWELU 


Doty 


4 










Geiidium spp? 


kinvelg 


Henriques* 
Peatady 


863 












kflwelu 


Pukui 


187 


Seme as liiuu loloa. 


limulolofl 




woody shrub with a long tail-like inflorescence 
resembling cockscomb, perhaps a* amaranth 




fcuwelu, hmu 


Rwd 


87 




luiuitefeuwslu 






Gtfiddm sp.? 


la'au kanaka 


Abbott L996 


33 


Men's medicine {CFnlaxaura ) 








fiplaxaura 


lehetehe ilio 


Pukui 


199 


Same as lepc-o-Hina, seaweeds. 


lepe-o-Huia 






Hatymeniaformosa Harvey ex Kutzing 


kpc-a-Hina, limu-a- 
Hiiia 


AhQuin 


[nterview 


Red. and slimy. Eaten, with lemon nod both. 











Appendix A.; Limu Database 
Page 26 out of $9 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SUAki,l> NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


LEPE-AHINA 


Doty 


4 


Probably * LEPE*G-HINA 








tJabmeniaformosa Harvey ex Kuizing 


lepc'ahine 


Ma grader 


77 










Haiymvniafvnnasa Harvey ex Kittziag 


Icpeahiim, limu 


Reed 


67 


Very perishable, must be cleaned in salt water and eaten soon after preparation. 








HafymeniQfwwQW H&YCy ens Kuttiug 


lepel CpC-c-H jna 


Putui 


204 


Same as lapg-a-Hina. a seaweed. 


lepe-o-Hitta 




Monarch butterfly; Kamehameha butterfly; 
nudibranchia 


Hatymeniaformosa Harvey ex Kutzing 


]epe*0»HLna 


Pukui 


204 


A red seaweed ^foijme/iicrformQSd ) with flat blades bearing fringed and 
irregular margins, with a variety of colors ranging from red toyellow; common 
alhisitm to swirling in wafer resembling movement of pfi'd in dancing. 

Also called lehelehe 'Hip, lepelepe-o-Hina, iimu-pepe-o-Hina. pa'u-o-Hi'iafca 


Lehelehe "ILio, lepeLepe-o^Hina, 
Limu-pepe-o-Hinfl, pfi'ii-o-Hi iaka 


Also called Lehelehe 'Hio, 
lepelepe-o-Hino, limu-ptpe 
o-Hina, p&'ii-c-Hi'iaka. 


Same as lepetepe-o-Htna. a butterfly 


Haiyinema formosa Harvey e* KuUing 


Lepe-o-Hina, Limu 


Abbott 1996" 


26 


Eaten on same day. 


liroulepe'uLa'ulfc 






Htiiymeniajbrmosa Harvey ex Kutzing 


leponaio 


Pukui 


204 


Afcind of sefliveed 










leponaio 


Henriqure- 
Peabody 


363 












likolchua 


Pnkui 


205 


A kind of seaweed. 






sweet potaio variety 




umanamana 


Pukui 


207 


AtutdoFseaweed. Lie, bewxtws seaweed 1 










ffinoa 


Pukui 


207 


Same as hum moa, a seaweed. 


hulu moa 








LIMU 


Doty 


4 


Algae in Samoan and Hawaiian. 










limn 


Andrews 




sea-aioss or sea-grass; a general name of every kind of eatable herb that grows in 
the sea; ihe Hawaiians also class the limu among fish; the varieties are... (listed 
throughout database under Source: Andrews) 










hrnuaalaula 


Andrews 














Jimuetdia 


Ajidfttti 














limit-elEtle-Vai 


Akana 


(0 


Used ufood. Mixed with other medicines, it becomes very effective for the 
removal of white blotches on the skin. 











Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 27 out of 59 



LIMIT NAME 


SOURCE 


FACE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


umuhumula 


Andrews 














liiuuhuluiho 


Andrews 














liniuhung 


Andrews 














limu-huna 


Alcana 


63 


Used as food and cooked together with squid. Used for the cure of disorder in the 
alimentary canal. 










UmuiLiahaa 


Andrews 














nmnkahakala 


Andrews 














Umukala 


Andrea's 














limu-fcala-kai 


Akana 


59 


Used as food. TbiE. and the "lipoa" or fragrant: sea weed, chewed together with 
baked taro by the mother and few to the child forty days old, makes a good renter 
For bodily weakness. 










limu-kalawpi 


Akana 


59 


This water weed, a good article of food, grows in fish-ponds almost anywhere 
around these islands. Used medicinally for the relief of toe burning effect which 
frequeudy occurs about the chest. 










bmukelc 


Andrews 














Kmu-kcJe 


Akana 


&a 


Black and tough water weed which grows ill two patches and in running sftcams 
Used for rnenstruaticii, 










limufciki 


Andrews 














limukoko 


Andrews 














lipiulipahapela 


Andrews 














lim u-li-pfllnh Blah a 


Akann 


61 


Crows abundantly in rivers, deep green in color and quite putted in appearance. I 
is used as food with warm pork and beef stew and helpful for stomach ache if 
mixed with young uuo leaves and baked 










limulipalao 


Andrews 














ljmulipalawai 


Andrews 















Appandix A: Limn Database 
Page 23 out of S9 



UMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PACE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


limit- lipa la -wai 


Alalia 


61 


Used as food and for [he removal of the congestion about the chest 










linnu-Li-pehfi 


AkHElQ 


62 


Irw effective Tor die cure of while blotches on the skin or For rash. 










lunu'lt-puu-pun 


Alalia 


til 


It has seeds that are lump}- in appearance and it lools rough and a very good 
article of food. Its odor is somewhat fragrant Used for bodily weakness, 
especially in children, 










litnulipoa 


Andrews 














limu*lipoa-kai 


Alaiia 


60 


Used as food. Used lor those afflicted with suits in the mouth, especially childrei 
It is afeo used for children having weakness of flic body. 










limulipupu 


Andrews 














limulipuula 


Andrews 














Limulipuupuu 


Andrews 














limuloloa, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












limu-lnau 


Akana 


62 


Grows in veiy deep water and is picked up off the shore after currents bring it in. 
It is helpful for troupe about the chest. 










liiriU'jtiake<o-Hana 


Pufcui 


207 


A OTcfecrfefsfrs -^a/^Jfuaa $p.) oaruaiaiag a taxis, reported as deadly poisonous ar 
Kana, Maui. Also limu-make-o-Mu olea 




Also lirtu-makt-o-Mu'olea 






limu- man auea 


Akana 


62 


Used as food, usually cooked with stewed beef or with squid As a remedy, it is 
largely employed tor the cure of miscarriage. 










Limunanaue 


Andrews 














limuapai 


Andrews 














limupaahaiea 


Andrews 














Janu-pahapuiui-kai 


Alalia 


62 


Used as food. It is used for the relief of those affected with asthma, especially 
those hHvinjf very severe cases 










hnm-pahapaha-wai 


Akana 


63 


It is used lor the relief of those affected with asthma, especially those having rerj 
severe eases. 











Appendix A: Limn Database 
Page 29 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


FAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


limunalahalaha 


Andrews 














limupalawai 


Andre we 














lipni-pepe^-Hiaia 


Pukui 


207 


Same as lepe-o*Hina, a seaweed. 








HalymGniaformasa Harvey ex Kutzing 


limupipiJani 


Andrews 














UMULOLOA 


Doty 


4 


(Chamber Lain) 










limuloloo 


Andrews 














limuuLaulu 


Andrews 














Ijpaakai 


Setchell 


LW 


Means *'saii limu." 


Limu kokfl, Lima kohu 








LIPA'AKAI 


Doty 


4 


(Setchell) 










LIPAAKAI 


Dply 


4 










Asparagopsis SoRfordiana Harv, 


[tpu'akai 


Pukui 


20B 


Limu salted fm - indefinite storage without refrigeration; on. Kauai ustiafy lutiu 
kdba from Ni'ibau, Some consider Heche, lipehn, and Upa'afeai us variants oflim 
kohu, 










li-paakai, lima 


Afcana 


SI 


Used as food,, frequently eaten with raw flab, such as "oto" or "awaaua" Tat nam 
applies when it is not detached from the rocks. When it is, it takes the name 
"limukohu"\ 

Used medievally far healing a sprain, relieving stomach ache r pain atom the 
wrist and knee and back ache. 










hpe-atai, limu 


MjcCauuhey 


152 




limu kohu, limu lipehu 






Jtsparagppsis Sanfoniiana Harv, 


bpaakai, Limu 


Rcod 


36 




limu. kohu, limu lipehu. limu kakc 






Aspafagapsls Sanfortfiorta Han*. 


Lipaha 


SetcbelL 


t04 












Lfpaha 


Pukui 


2tft 


Same as lipfthapahft, a seaweed 


lipaha paha 






Utvafas^inia Deltfe and Mwoj/reww 
OxySpermwn (KnEingj Doty 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Faga 30 out of 59 



LfMU NAME 


SOCKCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


bpahapaha 


Henriques- 
Peabody 


863 












Iipahapaha 


Pukui 


20s 


A general term for sea lettuce fJh>efaxciata and frfomstroma oxyspermwn \ 
common giccn seaweeds with delicate broad blades, usually with wavy margins. 
Eaten as a minor clement mixed with other tastier seaweeds. 

Also 'flic-ha'a. Ifpaha, ITpaha, lipilahalaha. pahap&ha (probably restricted to 
Knua't), pakawa (restricted to Hawaii), and pAlahalaha (Maui, Moloka'i, and 
O'ahu). 




Also Tliotia'a, Upaha, 
ITpaha, irnalahalaha, 
pahapaha (probably 
restricted to tiaua'ij. 
pqkaiea (restricted to 
Hawai'i), and palaluilalui 
(Maui, MolokYi, and 
Qahu). 




Utvajasciato Delile sndMtirtGsrrottta 
oxyspemwm (Kutzing) Doty 


lipahapaha, hmu 


Reed 


SB 


Sometimes bailed with squid. 








Vha i&ciuca rigida (Agh.) Le Jolis 


lipahapaha, Jjmu 


Chamberlain 


32 












LIPAHAPALA 


Doty 


+ 










Uiva lactuca 


lipahapaJa 


SetehcU 


]<M 












lip&hee 


Setebell 


[05 


Found on Maui. 


pahee 








LIPAHEE 


Doty 


4 


(Maui), = PAHEE (Hawaii); (Hawaii) Porphyra ieucosticta (Reed) 








Porpfiyra ieucosticta Tburet 


Upahec 


Pukni 


20a 


Same as limu hj'hu, a Seaweed, KausT 


lirnulu'ui 








lipase' e 


Pukui 


208 


Same as pfihe'ehee, a seaweed. Called lip-shoe on Maui. 


pahe'eht'e. Upihoe. (Matli) 








lipabcc, limu 


Reed 


88 


Reported only from two islands and scarce: called limu luau am Kauai and limu 
lipabu on Hawaii. 'Grow quite near the tide line along short, but on exposed blad 
lava rocks in rough water. 

Appears in. winler or spring after heavy storms and last for only a few {lays. 
Washed in tresh water, sail added, put into clear water. Sometimes oputi is added 
and kept in jars for many weeks. 

PmiD&d in a pulp with salt find die juice is used to moisten bandages on cuts or 
iniises. 


limu luau 






Porpfarcr tewosticta Thurei 


Spans' ehec 


Pukui 


208 


Same as ITpahe e. 


lipahe'e 








lipEhe'ehe'e 


Pukui 


203 


iSame as IrpaheY 


!Tpa?w> 









Appendix A: Li-mu Database 
Page 31 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


Upsboe 


Pukui 


208 


Same as. fipahe'e, a seaweed. Maul 


ITpfllift'j 








LIPAKAI 


Etaw 


4 


exChambeiUuii (- UPAAKAl^) 










ftpakai 


Setcliell 


105 


Possible cootoiictiDn DTinispfiniof lipaflkai. 










hpakai, limn 


Chamberlain 


32 












LIPALAHALAHA 


Doty 


4" 


Uhafascwia {}Atmy r lHvospp,M<mos}r(imaspp. (Sztti\tl\y T Ulvalactuca; 
LtPALAHALOHA (Setehell) 








Vfvajascfata Delile; Utva spp., Mcmostroma 
spp., JJlva lacluca 


lipalahalaha 


SeubeH 


[05 


Maui name for pakaiea. 


paiaiea (Hawai'i) 






iliva &PP-. iftinaslfvima spp. 


lipalahalaha 


Pukui 


208 


Same as ITpaiiapaha, sea lettuce. 


ITpahnpflha 






U(vafascia\a Delile stodMortostroma 
oxyspermum (KuCzinj) Duty 


Itpa-laha-lahs, limy 


MacCaughey 
1917 


l» 




biiiupoka-ea 






Ulvakwluea 


Irpalahalaha, limu 


Reed 


ss 




liiuu pakaea 






Uiva lactuca factnalo (Wulf.) J. Ag. 


lipalao 


SeKheD 


105 












UPALA'O 


Dffly 


4 


(Chamteiliun} 










Rpala'Q 


Pukui 


208 


Same as iTpalflwiu. fresh-water algae. 


UpaJflwai 


Same as Irpaiawai 






lipalao, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












lipalawai 


Heoriqias* 
Peabody 


863 












lipalawai 


Seiche]] 


LOS 


Found ia fresh running water and brackish water where it is dark greenish brawn 










EpaiSwai 


Abbott L996 


13 


Freshwater or brackish wale* algae also eaten by mauka. dwellers. 


Umi) paljLwai 








BpHawai 


Pukui 


208 


E&blo, green, fresh-water algae, consisting of tufts gf branching threads 
(Pithophora spp. and Stig^octomiaa spp. ),ur of a network of threads 
ifiydrodloyon >, or oFsimple threads tSpirogyra spp. ). Also Spala^fl, nehe, 
pala'S, pSlSwai 




Also fipala'tv nehe, pafa'6, 




Pftkophora spp. zndSlistotimitm spp. or 
Hydrodizlyort or Spirogyra spp. 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 32 out of S3 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATEN NAMES 


LI-PAL4-WAJ 


Doty 


4 










SlSgeoclonlwnfalkkmdicum Kuetz.; Piihophvro 
a/finis NairdSt. 


ii-pala-wai, limu 


MaeCuijjhey 
1917 


139 




limn pala-wai 






Sijgeocioniumfdklandicum Kuetz. 


li-pala-wai. limp 


MacCaughcy 
1917 


142 




limn pala-wai 






Pithaphora q&tnis Nordst. 


lipalawai, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












lipaJawai, Limw 


Reed 


88 




limu pal awfli 






P/lhophora offinis? Nordsl., Pithophora 
pofymorpha, Srigeocionium sp r ? 


L1PALU 


Vtfy 


4 










IxiwenCiti 


lipahi 


HenriqiieS' 
Peabady 


863 












lipalu 


Setthell 


106 


Young plants of a species of Lanrencin 








LaurenC"* Sp. 


lipalu 


Putoii 


208 


A seaweed much, like hufo "Hio 3 ^ladophora nfiida ), and peifagps the same; 
edible, green, soft, slippery tufts. 


hulu'ilic- 






Cladophora niiida ECuetz. 


lipaoaoa 


Pukui 


208 


A seaweed. Lit., fragrant sciiwwd- 










lipee 


Reed 


87 




limu Npeepee 






LawenciepmatifuJa (Gmtl.) Lam..I. 
p^rjOTQta Mont, L. obtusala h L. virgota (Ag.) J. 
A* 


LIPEE 


Day 


4 


? conftBction orUPEEPEE (MacCauRhey) 








Laurincia 


Dpe'fl 


Pukui 


208 


Same as upe'epe'e. 


ITpecpc'e 








lines, lima 


Reed 


87 




limu majieon&O, limu olipeepee 






Lavrencia piivjaSifida (<jmd.) Lam. 


lipee, limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


153 




Limu Li-jree-pee 






Laurenda spp. 


lipcepcc 


Seichell 


106 


"One day limu." 








glomrata Ag. 


lipccpce 


Henri queS- 
Penbody 


363 













Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 33 out of S3 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


DJFORMATIQN 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


LIPEEPEE 


Doty 


4 


laurencia (MacCaHiglieyMmaiwJfl glomerata (Puna?. Hawaii); Lawencia 
obtttsa var. racenxisa (SeLchell) 








Laurencia; Amansia glomerate Ag.; Laurerxia 
aktasn van eoceotosa 


lipe'epe'c 


Magnida 


31 










Launmcia guccisa Cribb 


Gpe'epe'e 


Ewalikn 


Audio 


'Aina Hpina. Crunch;. "Oi aku ka 'ano o ka Upe'ene'e ma mus o ka raanauea. 










(fpe cpc'c 


KeonofcaAife 


Video: 
AM 


Season is Kekaaapa, New Year. Kflafcut has uWJsnd of good limu. 










Lipe'epe'c 


Pukui 


208 


Some native species of a genus of edible seaweeds laurenciaparvlpaplHGtfl. L 
dntyi, L iuccisa ), short, wim stiff, knobby bmnchlets, nestling especially in 
basaltic rack. Also 'ape'epe'e, bo'onimu, llpe'e, pe'epe'e 




Also 'ape spe^e, ho'onunn, 
Hpee, peepe'e. 




LaurfUCia pannpapillata Tseng, L dntyi Saito, 
L. succlsa Cribb 


Kpe'epe'e 


KauOfiipduta 


Video: 
'AM 


Ma NindtwH. Aisi fcdo o to afry *ki 










u"pcVpe % e 


Haanio 


Audio 


Loa'a nut Kona, Vole mii. 










EpeVpe'e 


Howard 


Interview 


She picks up this limu at a place called lanpapa 'Qhua (reef wub maaini fish 
babies). 








Laurencip spp. 


b>pee-pee, limu 


HncCaugney 
WIT 


153 


For the finer, longer forms. 


limulipee 






Laut-encia spp. 


lipeepee, limn 


fceed 


87 


Grow far out on the coral reefs or on exposed rocks in die surf. Very perishable, 
must be cleaned in salt water and eaten soon after preparation. Conked with boile 
meats lone enough for die gelatin w be softened or dissolved Sometimes used in 
iaomana. 


limu maneoneo 






Laarencia papulosa (ForsL)GKV. 


lipeepee, Limu 


Heed 


87 


Pound drifted on sand or rocks. Grow far out an. the coral Teefs or on exposed 
rocks in the surf. Veiy perishable, must be cleaned in salt water and eaten booh 
after preparation. 

Cooked with boiled meats long enough tor the gelatin to be softened or dissolved 
Sometimes used in inomoua. 


lipee 






Laurtncia pipadjida (Gmel,) \^m.^L perforaio 
Mont. L- obtitsata. L. vfrgata (Ag.) J. Ag. 


lipeepce. limp 


Meal 












Laurencla spp. 


Lipeepee, limu 


Me&l 












Laurencia spp. 


Lipe'epe'e, limu 


Abbott 1996 


30 


Some nave transferred name xaAcantbophora spicifira but some infbnnanis 
recognize (his emjr. 


Bpe'e, ffbepe (Niifeau), fimu 
apc-'epee (variety of ITpe'epe'e). 






Lavrenno sutrtisa Cribb; L Jotyi Sailo 


Lipe'epee, limn 


Abbott 1996 


12 


ECapu m hula dancers. 








fjfmrencia spp. 


ITpehe 


h&ui 


208 


Same as Jijaa'akat, tolled limn. 


lipa'akaj 









Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 34 out of 59 



LIMB NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


L1PEHU 


Duly 


4 










Asparagopsis Sanfyrdlana Harv. 


Ltpshu 


Setchell 


J06 












ITpehu 


Pukui 


208 


Same as HpE'akfli, salted limu. 


llpa'ukai 








lipehu, limn 


Rwd 


86 




limu kuhu. limu lipaakai. limu 
tofco 






Asparagopsis SoHfordiann Harv. 


lipehu, Jimu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


152 




limu kohu, limu lipa-afcai 






ASpQrQgap&is Sanfardiana Harv. 


lipelni, limu 


Chamberlain 


S2 












Eptpe 


Pukui 


2G8 


Same as Hpe'epe l e. Ni'ihau 


npe'cpe't 








lipcpcieo 


Kenriques- 
Peabody 


863 












ffpcpeiao 


Putui 


HJS 


A seawwd. A1$q liars pepsiao and Ihttu kulapepeiao 






Also limu pepeiao and limu kulapepeiao a fresh- 
water moss, usual]]' qualified by tvai. 




LI-PEPE-IAO 


Daly 


4 










AmansiatftnrteraiQ Ag. 


li-pept-iao, limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


134 


Used for food. 


limu pepc-iao 






Antiuiiia g! amer ala Ag. 


lijwpeiao.. limn 


Reed 


86 


Different Harms of the same name ot Hawaii, not widely used, local. 


limupepeiao 






Amansia' glomerate Ag, 


LIPEWALE 


Doty 


4 


(Chamberlain) 










linewale 


Setehell 


106 












bpewflle. limu 


Chambertam 


32 












LIPOA 


Doty 


4 


"not strong kind" Dictyotv divaricota (Setehell); Dietyom dichoxoma; Halisitis 
partialis (Reed); Hatfserts plaglogramma: Dictyota acutiloba var. disx/ria 
(Neal) 








Dictyota divaricata Lamouraux,' Dictyota . 
ii'chotOma (Huds.) LaTOK,,' ffatiseris partialis; 
Haliseris p}agiogrfimma Mont.: Dictyota 
acutlfoba var. Astoria I. Ag. 


lipoa 


Magmder 


41 










Dietyoptetif attsttalis (Sonder) Askenasy,£. 
vlagiogramota {Montague) Vickere 



Appendix A: Linn Database 
Page 35 out of 59 



L1MUNAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


b'poa 


Miller 












Hoiiseris plagtagranrtta Mont. 


lipoa 


Simpson 














lipoa 


Seiche]] 


92J05 


Moat delicious ftagranw. Word limu not applied m this name in speaking 








Haiiseris plagiogranvna Moat., Dictyoia 
dtvoncata Lamouroux, D. dlcfiotoma (Huds.) 
Lams., D. patens 


lipoa 


Henri ques- 
Peabody 


863 












lipoa 


Bryan 












Haliseris 


Sppa. 


Kaina 


lntervipw 


There are duTtreni kinds of lipoa. 










Kpoa 


Wong 


IutervJEw 


The kalaand nenue eat the Upoa. On Ni'ihau, there is a lot of lipoa, but the 
Nffhau people consider it opala (rubbish). When it is the right season, the ocean 
is thick with lipoa and it washes up on the sand mating a very strong smell 










lipoa 


Haanio 


Audio 


Loa's ma Koto, ' a/oLeittii. 










Hpoa 


Ewiflliko 


Audio 


Holoi no '<x, tata "oe a "oki'oti. EtVotomo i loko o ha 'omrfe. Maunalua used 
to be (Hawaii Kai now). He manawa tA e pae mai. 'A^ole hana ki ia, he mea ai 
walenfi\ 










lipoa 


Ellis 


Video: 
AM 


WaikikI is onaorm ika lipoa. 










Upon 


Ah Quill 


Interview 


ICau is February on Maui. 










Upoa 


Pukui 


208 


Bladelikc, branched, brown seaweeds picfyopieris pbgipgramma and D. 
aastraiis ) with conspicuous midrib on blade, unique aroma and flavor; highly 
priaed on all islands. 








DlctyopteriS plpgiagramina (Montagne) Victors 
and D. austroi/s (Sonder) Askenasy 


lipoa 


Gannon 


Interview 


Her all time favorite limu is lipoa. 










Lipoa, limit 


Etecd 


87 


GroTv far out on the coral reefs or on exposed rocks in the surf Iron rod is used ft 
loosen sometimes. Dropped into hot soup cr gravy as it is about to be scrved- 

Vtry often pounded and mixed with other seaweeds to give them its peculiar 
penetrating, spicy flavor and odor. 








Hafiseris partialis, Haliseris piagipgranvna 
Mont. 


lipoa, ILmu 


MacCanghcj 
19L? 


148 


It ii a favorite among the natives. 








Hoiiseris piaglograimna Mont. 


lipoa, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 













Appendix A: Lima Database 
Page 36 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


lipc&lima 


ttsa) 












ffuliseris plagtogramrtta Wont., Dictyota 
acutifo&a Yttr. distorCa 3. Ag. 


lipoa, limu 


Abbott 1996 


20 


Said to be eaten by ' o io fish IUtenyrj&uliii,he'emaka,ake,Drby itself with 
pot. 


llpa'atai (heavily salted Limu in 
general) 






Dtctyopterts plagrogrammo (Mtmtagne) Vickets. 
U. awtralis (Sonder) Askenasy 


lipoa, limn 


Abbott 1996 


13 


Cleaned in saltwater, then in fresh water and pounded. Add salt. 










fipobSpoliB 


Pukui 


208 


Same as poltapaha 3 P a seaweed. 


pohapoha 






Dicryosphaeria cavernosa (Fc-rssM) BoTgesen 


LIPUPU 


Doty 


4 


(Chamberlain) 










lipupu 


Setchell 


107 












bpupu, Jimu 


Chamberlain 


32 












Dpu'u 


Pukui 


208 


Same as tipif nmj'o- 


Kpu'wpu'u, fcukiie'D-Kamapua'a 








LIPUULA 


Doty 


4 


(Chamberlam) 










lipuula 


Sefchell 


10? 








) 




lipuula, Limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












lipuupnu 


Henrique s- 
Peabody 


8fi3 












lipnupuu 


Setchelt 


107 


Keeps only one day. 








Dicfyosphaetiajfrvaloxa {Ag.)Dvne. 


lipuupuu, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












lipuupUU, limu 


Neat 












Laurenda spp. 


lipwipuu. limu 


Reed 


87 




liulu tuqnenneo 






JfBt*f.nc\Q sp. ? 


Lipuupiui, limu 


teed 


S3 










Valonia uinevfans Ag. 



Appendix A: Liotu Ustabasa 
Pago 37 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


FACE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


LIPUUFU'U 


Doty 


4 










spp.; Vaiania urric u!ar(s Ag. 


ITpu'upu'u 


Keoltokalole 


Video. 
AM 


Eaten with salt salmon. 










Hpn'iipu'u 


Pukui 


208 


An edible grwn seaweed d-Wiwna utricutoiis \ with turgid jointeand shun 
branches. Also bflkw-D-Kunapua'a. 


kukae-o-tUmapua'a, ftpu'u 


Also kiikae-o-K&aapua'a 






li- pun-putt, limn 


MacCaughcy 
1917 


142 


Used by them {natives) for food. 








Vaionio urtiatfaris Ag- 


li-puu-puu. Until 


MacCaueney 
1917 


133 


A name used locally in certain districts on Hawai' i and Maui 








Lawrenpip spp. 


LOLOA 


Doty 


5 


(Maui, Kauai) 








Ge/j<Aiun, r Pteroclptfta capiUacea (Gmelin) 
Sanlelices K HouaDNssaA.Gefidiuiti paiUltan 
(Siackii.) Le Jol.; Geifdium amansfi 


Loloa 


Abbott 19+7 


204 










Geiidftm 


loloa 


Pukui 


211 


A seaweed (Kl* line 93), probably the same as limu loloa 


limn loloa? 








loloa 


Setahell 


107 










Possibly Gitidijmt Ammsii 


lofce 


Bryan 












GdidlW 


lo-loa, limu 


MacCamjhey 
WIS 


476 


"the long or slender limu' 1 








GgUdivm sp, 


loloa, luaa 


Reed 


8S 


This specks often called limu loloa on Maui and Kauai. Cooked with boiled 
meats long enough for the gelatin to be softened or dissolved. 








Pterocladia cQpfflacea (Gmedk) Satttelices M 
Hummers Mid 


loioa. limu 


MacCauekey 
1917 


150 


Extensively used as food. 


limuekaha-kaJia 






Gdit/ium attenuatum, G. cortxt&tJ, G.feliciHUlN 
{Boiy> G. intricalum (J. Ag.) Kuck C 
katjefitiitt Botn.. Gewttlagineum (L.) Gaill.. G. 
pusiftum (StackhDuse) Le Jolis 


loloa, limu 


Reed 


S7 


Gnnv quite near the tide Line along shore, but on exposed black lava rocks in 
inugn water. Cooked witii boiled meats long enough for the gelatin to be softener 
or dissolved. 








GelitEum tatenuMtuN?, G. corneutn vwr, ?, G. 
{atifotiuin? Bom,. G. microptem/n?, G. 
pulvinatum?, G, pvsi}han 7 (Staekhnuse) Le Jolis 


foioa, firou 


Pukui 


207 


Several specie; of edible red seaweeds Gelicttvm), cylaidricfll or flattened, more 
or less pinnately branched, texture firm and smooth. 




"anapanapa, £kahakaha, 
iuwelu 




Gefi&wrt 


loloa, limu 


Med 












Gehdiwn 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Paga 3S out of 59 



IJMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHABED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


loloa, limu 


Reed 


87 


Grow quite near the tide line along shore, but oa exposed black lava rocks in 
tough water. Cooked with boiled meats long enough for the gelatin to be softener 
or dissolved. 


limu ekahakaha 






GedtdiofjJiliciHimt? Bory 


loloa, limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


130 


Used by the natives of Kaua' i and Maui. 








Pterociafia capiiiocea (Gmelin) Sanlelices et 
Homme regnd 


Iva'ii 


Bryan 












Porphyro 


UTAU 


Doty 


5 










PorpHyra lewosticia Thuret (Kauai) 


UJAU 


Doty 


5 


(Maui) 








Polyopes? 


!fl'fl(l 


Ptikai 


214 


Sara? as Jimw la an. & «««<), 


Jirau Jij'au 








Juau, Janu 


Reed 


Bft 


Grow quite near the tide line along shore, but on exposed black lava rocks in 
rough water. Appears in winter or spring after heavy storms and Last for only a fc 
days. Washed in fresh water, salt added, put into clear water. 

Sometimes Dpihi is added and bent in jars for many weeks. Pounded to apulp 
with salt and the juice is used to moisten bandagescn cuts or braises. 


limu lipahee 






Porphyra teucosticta Thuret 


Iuhu, limu 


Reed 


S8 


A single small specimen sent by native on Maui, similar to Porphyra. 








Polyopes? 


lua'u, limu 


MacCaugbcy 
19J? 


i+y 


A very highly prized delicacy. 








Parphyra leaeasticta Thuret 


10.' aii, limu 


Pukui 


207 


A red seaweed IParphyra sp. ), growing in the winter on boulders in exposed 
places, with delicate, thin blade* appearing in groups. Best known on Kaua'i but 
known on all major islands. Also pane's or pahe'ehe'e. 




Also pahe'e or pahe'ehe'e 




Porphyra $p- 


LUPE 


Doty 


5 


(Cham.be riak) 










tope 


Setehell 


107 








huurnami or ray that was forbidden for women to eal 
also a fish. 




lupe, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












maka 


Pubui 


224 


A seaweed. See alafti. 




alani 


varieties ofsweet potato. See raaka kila, owka koali, 
and mak^ nui 




MAKALOA 


Daly 


3 


(Chamberlain) 










makaloa 


Pukai 


227 


A seaweed. 











Appendix A; Limu Database 
Pag« 39 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SVNONVMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


makaloa 


SeicheJJ 


IDS 












makaloa, limu 


Chambartoiri 


32 












MAKE 


Doty 


S 


ALANI {fide Setchell), tDictyoto'! 








UctyetQ? 


matt 


SsKbell 


1«8 




timuaiarii 








moist, Jimu 


Henriques- 
Peabody 


863 












make, Jimu 


- 


Intemew 


Out Muokti side. 










jnatia-o-ka-limu- 
koki 


Pukui 


231 


A seaweed, Lit., parent of the Limu kohu 










maiiua-o-ka-limn- 
kohu 


Pukui 


23 L 


A seaweed, lit., parent of the limu kohu 










MANA1EA 


Doty 


S 


ex Andrews Dictionary-, = MANAUEA (Setchell) 










munaieB 


Seeled 


108 




manauea, manauwea 








manaicR 


Mali 


»6 


Same as manauea, a seaweed. 


manauea 








MANAUEA 


Doty 


5 










Gelidium Jiticinum Bory; tirocilarin 
cororwpifolia I. Agsrdh 


Maiumta 


Abbott 19*7 


206 


Found in sandy, sheltered areas about the islands 








Graciltiria 


manauea 


Magruder 


73 










Grocilaria caronapifalia J. Agardh 


manauea 


Eivaliko 


Audio 


Palnpalu mai ko kakou manauea ma muao kaogo. 'Qki'oki e like me ka Limu 
koha. ' A'ohe tnaika'i ka mes pu'upu u. Nanl 'oe i ka mea 'attain no a puau (7) 
maiinnna. Ki'iikameahi'uLa, raaika'i. "AinaHaina. 










manauea 


Kaaiakes 


Audio 


Pakepakf ke hou. Pahihft mai i ka wai wela. 










maaouea 


Hnanio 


Audio 


'Ai 'ia, Ltc mea ho'ohuihui. 











Appendix A: Liima Database 
Page 40 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE AISO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


manaues 


Henriques- 
Peabady 


S63 












manaucg 


Setchcll 


106 




manaita, manauwea 






Gelidittm fiiicimtm Bory 


manauea, manauwea 


Pukui 


237 


A small red seaweed ipradfaria coranapijbtfa \ with stiff, cylindrical, auccukn 
stem and branches, a good alga for making food gels (KL line 53). The terra may 
be qualified with pala kea, pehu, orpuakca. 

Rarely manaiea; often. called "stunt oga* and "long ognj" (Japanese dialect). Ogu 
or long ago is Gracllaria bursa-pasTorts . 


manaiea 




taro variety 


OraCi/tvia vumnopijbHa J. Agaidh 


manauea 


Gorman 


Interview 


Recognized from picture in Magruder book 










manauea 


Anamizu. 


Interview 


Kahnku Point still has a lot of manauea growing in the limestone depressions. If 
you'll) not going to eat it all, it can be preserved with some salt in a jar and 
refrigerated 










mn-nau-ea, ]jmu 


MacCaugliey 
1917 


151 


ExKiisivfcly used for food by die Hawai'ians. 








GraCilaria CQrQnOpifolia J. Agardh 


rjianauee, limu 


Neal 












Gracilafio coronopifolia J. Agardh, Gratilaria 

Spp. 


mauauea, limu 


AbbDHl39fi 


13 


Cleaned in salt water, then in fresh water and chopped. Ha'ahai 'ia me ka lima 
mun^one'a' i kefcabi msnawa. 










manauea, limu 


Abbott 1996 


29 


Ovet-flahol- 








Graciiarti coronopifo/la J. Agardh 


manauea, limu 


Abbott 1996 


12 


GelaUnizes on heating, used in aews or in imu. 










manauea, limu 


Pukui 


208 


See mmuuiea. 




Seemananea 






manauea, limu 


Reed 


87 


Found drifted cm sand or rocks. Grow neat the shore. Occasionally conked in imi 
when there was famine or war and tero and sweet poiatoes were scarce. Cooked 
with boiled meats tang enough for the gelatin to be softened or dissolved. 

Subsorue-d ftn limu huna when cooked with squid or octopus. Boiled with chicke 
to Uu'cfctti broth. SometiiH.es used in inmnona. 








Grac'ipria cvronopijoiia J. Agardh 


manauwea 


Setehell 


95, KB 


Eaten with fresh squid. "One day limn " EateJi cooked or raw. 


manaiea, manauea 






Graciiaria cororiapiftttia J. Agardh 


MAWEONEO 


Doty 


5 










Ltntremria abhtsa yar, rac$B\asa 


maiKoneo 


rieariques- 
Peabody 


m 













Appendix A: Limu Database 
£ag« 41 out of 59 



LTMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


tnaneuneo 


SetcHeLL 


10E 


Keeps only one day. 








Lattrencia obtuse ybt. mcemasa 


mane' one' n 


Magruder 


81 










Ixmr^ncia rwdifca J, Agardh 


mane one o 


Pukui 


23* 


An edible seav/ecd,Laurencia nidifica 








Laurencia nidifica J. Agardli 


ma-iKO-neo, limu 


MacCauehey 
1917 


153 


For the shorter, coarser species. 








Laurencia spp. 


maneoneo, limu 


Ree<] 


87 


Found drifted oa sand or rocks. Iron rod is used to loosen sometimes. Pounded 
willi salt and the juice is put on cuts or bruises. 


limu olipeepee, bam lipee 






Laureftcia pirvmtifida (Gruel) Lam. 


maneoneo, limu 


Nca( 












Laur&tcia spp. 


mflJKoneo, limu 


Reed 


S7 


The several species of Laurencia are generally called hmu manerjneo, if coarse or 
short, and limu lipeepee if finer and longer. Limu lipee is an abbreviation, while 
limu lipuupuu has onJy local ose in plates on Hawaii and Maui. 

found drifted cm tand or rocks. Iron rod is used to loosen sometimes. Pounded 
with salt and the juice is put on cuts or bruises. 


limu lipeepee 






Laurencia papillasa (Forst .) Grev. 


maneoneo, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












maneoneo. limu 


Reed 


&7 


Found drifted on wnd or rocks, [ton rod is used to Loosen sometimes. Pounded 
with salt and the juice is put on cuts cr bruises. 


limu. lipunpiru. 






Laurenctosp.? 


mane' one' o, limu 


Abbott 19% 


32 


Young plants ate more tender and has a sharper peppery taste. 








Lawenctct nidifica J. Agardh 


MANU 


Doty 


3 










Cha&to/n orpha aniennino (Eory) Kutzing 


mam) 


Bryan 












Ciadophora 


maun, limu 


Reed 


£6 




limu huluiliq. limu ilio 






Chaetomorpfta cmtennina (Bory) Kutzinej 


panu. timu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


HI 




liiaultulu-iliu, limu iho 






Cladophora aitf&miina (Bofy j Kuet2. 


MAUAUWEA 


Doty 


5 


tmisprim of MANAUWEA?) ex Chamberlain (Setchell) 










jnauttuwea 


Seiche]] 


103 


Probably a misprint for Limu manauwea. 











Afrpftndix A.r Limu Database 
Page 42 out of 59 



HMD NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SOARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


mauauwea, ljuiu 


Charaberiain 


32 












maunauea 


Simpson 














mawaewae 


Putui 


243 


A Seaweed. 










mHwaewae kilihune 


Pukui 


243 


The name of & seaweed 










me-iiau-ea 


Bryan 




(Ice Gamj, Kauai, Mololrai) 








Gracflaria 


MENAUEA 


Doly 


5 


(Kone, Oaho, Kauai, and Molokai) 








Gracitorio 


aioa.limu 


Putui 


207 


Same w hulu moa, a seaweed. 


hulumoa 








MOOPUNA 


Doty 


i 


KA-L1POA; tirijjiihsti oval/i . Probably MO'OPUNA-A-KA-LITOA. 








Grifpihsia ovaiis KarY.? 


mo' opuna 


ftifcui 


254 


Short fat mo'opuna-a-fca-lTpoa. 


mo 'opuna -a-fca-ltpoa, auptfpil 






Grifpihsia sp. 


moo-puna, limu 


MecCaughcy 
1917 


154 


A very scarce species; used for fond on rtfaui and southern Mawai'i 


limu ka-lipoa, limu au-pupu 






GnJP'hsia ovalis Harv? 


moopuna, limu 


Reed 


87 




liim* ka-Lipoa. lima anpupu 






GnPtteiasp.? 


moopuEB. (imu 


Ncel 












Gtiptksia 


nioopuM a ka Itpoa 


Henriques- 
Peabody 


363 












moopuna-aHka-l^wa 


Pukui 


254 


A fine red seaweed (rriffilhsia sp. ), consisting of branching hoirlLke tufts; edible. 
Common in Ka'Q and Kona, Hawaii 


aupiipu, ma' opuna 






Gnffiihsia sp. 


moopuna-fca-lijipB, 
iamu 


Reed 


66 


Veiy perishable, must bt cleaned in salt water and calcn soon after jjreporenna. 
Sometimes ace ripened by soaking in fresh water, 








Grtffithsiasp.? 


m d L 0puna<-04imu -kali 


Abbott 1996 


23 


Hinging species of limu that is com man an limu kalo. 










MUALEA 


Doty 


5 


tianmed to be poisonous (Seiche It). 











Appendix A: Lirau Database 
Pig* 43 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOUECE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SVNONVMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


mnalea 


Setehel) 


10B 


Poisonous limu, curty and greenish. Placed on hot stones to melt and can be and 
when it becomes reddi&n and more potent- Placed in Aw* it would kill toe dririke 
in 15 minutes. Grows in two places near Hana. 

Dried and powdered, put in tube of pili grass and blown onto person tabs 
poisoned. Handled ttt kwtidc when it is exposed, using sticks. 










unhawele 


Pukui 


25$ 


Same as hum "Hid (Chactonnwpha antennma). a seaweed 


hulu "ilio 




A bivalve of the family tsonomonidae. Also 
mahawck:. On O'&Jiu. theFemu cosleffota, AttiKX 
sp. 


Chaeiomorpha anignntna (Bory) Kuteing 


nanawefe 


Hcwj<jues- 
Peabody 


fttf 












naio 


Pukui 


259 


Name of a seaweed:. 






bastard sandalwood fyfyvpzwn sond*/icense ) 




nakeke 


Pukui 


259 


A bto-wn seaweed Qiydroclathrus claihratus X resembling puha and closely 
related to it, but die surface pierced with holes of different sizes; not eaten 








Hydroclathws ciaihratia (C. Agardli)Howe 


NANEA 


Doty 


5 










fiypnea nidifica J. Agardtl 


nanea 


Pukui 


161 


A seaweed ifiypnea nidtflca ) 






Same as raohUuhi.. a vine ty igno manna ) 


Ffypnea m'difica J.Agordli 


nanca 


Seidell 


169 










ffypnen mdifica J. Agardh 


nun do 


Setcbtl] 


109 












NANOG 


Doty 


5 


(Chamberlain) 










nanoo 


ftjkui 


262 


A diuk-redi or purple seaweed, said to be same as nanea 


nanea 






HyprteH nidifwa J. Agaidh 


nanoo, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












NANUE 


Doty 


5 


(Chamberlain) 










nan ue 


Pukui 


262 


An edible seaweed. 






Yar. of itenue, a fish.. 




ngnue 


Sclchell 


109 












nanus, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 













Appendix A: Limu Database 
Paga 44 out of 59 



LIMIT NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


JNTOftMATIGN 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


NANUI 


Doty 


5 










Grateitwpiafiiiana (Lamouroux) C. Agartm 


nanui 


Setcheli 


109 


Grows in. Kohata, edible, much like lipoa. Also found on Maui 










nanui 


Kaina 


Interview 


Looks Like lipoa. It is also eaten. H ha? a stronger smell than STpoa and you can 
smell it when driving on HSmna Rand sometimes, Iz has seasons when it floats in 
and is eaten by the enenue. 

When you cui Ehe 'opi of the eiietiae, you can rinse the insidss and mis that limu 
(which is already chopped up for you) with the poke. 










ne 


Pukui 


263 


A seaweed. (KLUne 101 > 










NEHE 


Doty 


5 










Spiro&ra typ. 


Behe 


Pukui 


264 


Some kinds of pond scums Qptrogyrospp, ), fine fresh-water algae, consisting of 
rows of single-celled filaments, each cell contmning ribborehaped; spirals. Also 
limu IcaJa wai 3 ITpala'fl, OpalBwai, pala'0, palfiwai. 




Also limu kala wai, 
llpala'o, Bpfilawai, pala'o, 
palawai r 




Spitvgyra spp. 


Belie, linm 


Reed 


88 




ItmupaJawai, limu polao 






Spirogyra sp. (probably several) 


nehe. limu 


Pukui 


207 


Same as limukalawai 


limu kalawai 








NEI 


Doty 


S 










GymnagC'ngnis vermiCularis iBnericana I, Ag.; 
Gytmagongrits disciplmalss (Boty) J. Ag, 


nei 


Pukui 


264 


Sameaskoele'ele, a seaweed; according to Reed 116, same as limu uaualqli 


limu uaus loli? 


ko ele'ele 






cei 


Kaina 


[nlervtew 


Opihi limu, oldtimeis eat with 'apihi (picked when dark). Smooth and crunghy. 








AfmftbiOpSis {lab&llifontiix (Harvey) Masuda 


ae^limu. 


Reed 


87 




limu uaualoli, limu ekahaekaha. 
limukoeleele or koele, limu 
awikiwiki 






Gyomogongrvs vermiatlaris americatia J. Ag., 
GymnQgangruit ditiplinaiis (Bory) J. Ag. 


nei, limu 


MacCuughey 
1917 


150 




limu ua-ua-loli, limu ekaha-kalia, 
limu ko-ete-ele, limu awiki-wiki 








NOHOMAHE 


Doty 


5 










Chaetontorpha antenruna (Eory) Kulziiig 


noliomahc 


Setcheli 


109 










Chaetomorpha oniennina (Bory) Kutzutf 


nu> 


Henriques- 
PeabodY 


B63 













Appendix A; Lima Database 
Page 45 out. of 59 



LEMUNAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


nu'a 


Pukui 


272 


A land af seaweed. 










OAOAKA 


Dot? 


5 


(Chamberlain) 










oaoaka 


Seichfill 


]09 












oaoaka, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












0B°, limu 


Jli 


Vtdw: 


"Ohi t ka rami. Before, limu r>go was rubbish. 










ago, limu 


KeohokaMe 


Video. 
'AM 


Nui ma Kualoa. 










ohiohio 


SefcheH 


110 












^OHTOHl'O 


Doty 


5 


(dmrnberlain) 










'ghiohi'o 


Pukui 


278 


A seaweed. 










ahLohLd.liniu 


Chamberlain 


32 












oh une 


Henri ques- 
Peabodp 


Sfi 












'Ghune 


Pnfcui 


279 


Akiad of seaweed. 










okala 


Selchcll 


110 










Gataxaum rugosa (filllis et Solanrler) 
Lamouioux 


OKALA 


Daly 


S 










Galaxourp mgosa (EUUs fil Solaader) 
Lttmouroux 


oka La 


Pukui 


28] 


A rather aauu red seaweed Calaxaun mgosa ), regularly and densely branching 
ihe branches hollow and marked with rings; not edible. Also pibtfakafei 
[GoIokiwtv $pp. ) 


kauno'a, kauna^oa 


Also pakalak&la 
(Galaxaura spp. ) 


same as l dkolc. sea anemone perhaps 


Galaxaura rugosa (Elllis el Solander) 
LamourouK 


OKUPE 


Doty 


5 


(Chamberlain) 










okupe 


Secchdl 


1L0 













Appondix A: Limu Database 
Page 46 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONVMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


okupe, liittu 


Cbambcilain 


32 












OL1PEEPEE 


Doty 


5 










fjiUfencia pinnatxfida (Cmcl.) Lam. 


olipeepee, Lima 


Reed 


a? 




limu maneoneo, limu lipec 






Laurenria prnnattfiiio (Gmcl.) Lam. 


OOCHIEA 


Ddty 


5 


(ChambeTlam) 










oohie* 


Sclchcll 


no 












CO hies, limu 


Chambeilajn 


32 












oolu 


Henjiqucg.- 
Peabody 


863 












oota 


Seiche 11 


MO 


Favgrhe about Honolulu. 








Lawertcta obtwa var. racemosa, Hypnea 
nidifica?l. Agardh 


UOLU 


Duty 


5 










Champia compreSsa Han- .-, Chondria 
temtissima var. intermedia Gnui.: Lourencsn 
cbtusa wr. racemose 


'o'oln 


Pokui 


290 


melt in fredi water, hettce must be cleaned m. sea water. 






tsrp variety 


Cfiamp\a sp and Cffenifriq t&missfma 


o-olu, limu 


MacCaugbey 
19)7 


132 










Champia compressa Harv. 


o-olu, limu 


MaoCaugbey 


478 










Cfemdna l&massima 


o-olu, limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


153 


Used for food. 








Chondrla i&missima 


ooJu, limu 


Swd 


66 


Grow dear the shore. Veiy perishable, must be cleaned in. saltwater and eaten 
soon *fter preparantHL 








Champip compre&sa Harv., Chondria 
Unuissima intermedia 


oohj, limu 


Neal 












Champio campresga Harv, 


OPAL 


Doty 


6 


(Oiambecuiin) Probably * 'OPAE. 










apsi 


SMChell 


110 













Appendix A: Lijnu Database 
Page 47 out of 53 



LIMTJ NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAM£5 


opai. limu 


CJiamb^Tlain 


32 












opilu limu 


Ewaliko 


Audio 


Hiki no" ke 'ai. 










opihi limu 


AhQuin 


[nI£Jview 


1) Green with clusters. 2) Long red. 










'opihi, limu 


Kaal&kea 


Audio 


Pufupu kona ono. KukQ d lab. 










opihi, limu 


Ellis 


Video: 
AM 


"AolemaopoBo kit iiwa maoli. 










ouri 


Gaudichaud 


148 










Sphaemcticciif catrcitina? (Brown c\ Twmw) C. 
Aeardb 


'owakawaks 


Keohakalolc 


Vidso: 
"AM 


Type Of limu. 










owsfcawaka 


Ah Quid 


Interview 


Dark brown, lettuce like, biitt!e. 










PA'AKAI 


Doty 


6 


HALE (Chambeflain); LIPAAKAI? ex Cbamberiam, (fide Sctehell) 










puakili 


SewfteJ] 


110 




lipaakaj 








paakai. limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












pa akai, limu 


Pukwi 


207 


Limu salted for indefinite storage without refrigeration. On Maui, usually limu 
lipoa. See Upa'akai. 




See Upa'aksi 






PAAKAIEA 


Doty 


6 


(Chamberlain); PAKA1EA otIjYw? (SetchellJ 








Viva? 


paakaiea 


Sefclieil 


110 




pakniea 








paakaiea, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












PACAYA 


Dtxy 


6 










Viva Jima ; Viva compressa; Salerno compressa 


pacgya 


Gaudichaud 


143 










Uiva lima {Uiva compressa ), (Salema 
compressa ) 



Appendix A: Limn Database 
Page 4S out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHAftED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


PAHAPAHA 


Doty 


6 










MonintrOma laljssimiim Witlrock; Utva fasciata 
Ds-lil- 


pariapaka 


Pufcui 


299 


Same as fipahapaha. sea lettuce. 


lipchapaha 






oxyspeemum (Kutzing) Doiy 


pahapaha 


Setcbell 


J Hi 


Kaua'i name for pakaica {Hawai'i). 








Uiva ftiscitite Delile, Mbnostroma latissintoim 
WiCiogk 


pahapaha 


Ewaliko 


Audm 


Pae mai nfl 'o ia, uLiuti. 'Ai ka po'e keg&m, ''oki'aki me ka sahi a be aha IS, 










paha-paha. Jimu 


MacCaughcy 
LSI? 


13B 




ljmu pa-laha-loha 






Utvafascinia Delile 


pahapaha, Umu 


Bryan 












Urra 


pahapaha, Limn 


Rewt 


88 


The three £/fva spp. wem to be mdUimajiishahle by che natives, and the different 
islands and localities Have various forms of the name, but limu pakaea is only in 
use on Hawaii Grow near the shore. 

Dropped into hot soup or gravy as it ia about to be served. Sometimes are ripenec 
by soaking in fresh wan?. Tender tips arc nibbed between fingers and small 
molluscs of a special kind is added with sal) Pounded and put oa bruises. 


limu pnlahaloha 






JJivafasctaia Debit 


pahapaha, limu 


Nwl 












Ufva spp. 


pahapaha, Umu 


Chamberlain 


32 












PAHAPAHA-O- 
POLI 


Doty 


6 


Hale (ex Ch*mberlain fide SetthchTl Probably = PAHAPA-O-POLIHALE and 
named for a place on Kauai where it occurs. 










pahapaha o poll hale 


Setehell 


111 












pahapaha o Polihale 


Abbott 19% 


12 


Uh/n fosciala used as an adornment in hula, after the locality where it was used it 
western Kauai. 








Ufvajasdam Dtlilt 


pflhapaha-d-PdEihttle 


Pukui 


299 


A kind of pahapaha said to be found only at PolHiata, Kauai; after drying it was 
believed to revive when immersed in sea water, it was made into leis (FS 103) 








Vlvasp. 


pahapaha o polihaie, 
limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












pahapaha wai 


Pukui 


299 


A sea lettuce ffJtva sp. ) with narrow frond. Found where sea and fresh water 
meet. 








TJfvaxp. 


pohee 


Hcnriquea- 
Peabody 


8*3 













Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 43 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


pah« 


S etch ell 


111 


Hawai'intuire ror lipahee. Eaten raw and put on cooked meat. 


lipahee 








PAHETE 


Doty 


6 


(Hawaii) same as UPAHEE (Setchell). 










pahe'e 


Magrudei 


89 










Porpftyra sp. 


pahe'e 


Haartio 


Audio 


Vh. maka lae o Pahe'ehe'e La inoa. Ho'bkaii nlu 'ana o ka makahiki 










pahe'e 


Pukw 


299 


Same as pfihe'ehe'e, a seaweed. 


pahe'ehe'e 






Porphyrasp. 


pahe'e 


Gannon 


Interview 


Recognized from picture in MagrudeT book- 










pahc'e, limu 


Abbott 1996 


23 


Used with i'a lami (taw fish?). 


pahft'ehe'e, Ifl'au (Kaua'') 






P&rphyra spy. 


pahe'ehe'e 


Pukui 


299 


A green cushion shaped solid ssaweed forpkyra sp. , formerly Dictyosphoerta }. 
Also lipahe e, fipaht'ehe'e, ilpaboe, pahe'e, 




Also ITpahe^e. lipahe'ehe'e, 
lipahoe, pahe'e 




Perphyrasp 


PAKA-EA 


IXjt)' 


S 










Utva laciuta {adnata (Wulf.) J. Ag. 


paka-ea 


Bryan 












Ufva 


puka-ca, Limu 


MscCanghey 
L9L7 


138 




Hmu lipa-laha-lsha 






Ufta iactuca 


pdkaea, limu 


Reed 


88 




limu lipalahalaha 






Ufva Iactuca lacimta (Wulf.) J. Ag. 


PAKAELEAWA 


Doty 


6 


(Mfliii)— HULUHULUWAENA 








(irateloupia filicma (Lainouioux) C. Agardh 


pakaekawa 


SetcbeU 


HI 


Maui name for liuhihiiiuwaenfl (Hawaii). 


paktleawaa. 








PAKA-ELE-AWA A 


Don 


6 


Kauai, all but Hawaii (MecCaughey) 








Gratetoupia Jilicina {LattLOaroux) C. Ajjardh 


pflka-ele-awa'a, limu 


Mrc&tagfrey 
L9i7 


154 


Tiis none is as«J exclusively on Kaua';. Bo)Ji wows are used on intermedials 
ulanda. 


limu. huluhulmvaena 






Gratefoupia phcma (LamtnirtxiK) C. Agardh 


pakadeawaa, limu 


Reed 


87 


Grow near the shore. 


limu hduhuhiwaean 






Grvtetoupiafflcina (Lamamtmx) C Agardh 



Appendix A.: Limu. Database 
Page 50 out e£ 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


PAKAJEA 


Dot* 


6 










Utvaspp- and M&tuiroitta in general; Ww 
fhiiiaiB Drill? 


pakaiea 


Henriques- 
Peabody 


£6} 












pakaieB 


Seteltell 


111 


Some say it is edible, others disagree. 








Vivafosciaia Delilc, Munosiramn ap. 


pakaiea 


Pufcui 


304 


Same as ITpahnpaha, sea lettuce. Hawai'i 






Same as halfili'i, a variety of sugar cane', named for 
the seaweed, a varkty oflaro. 




pakaiea, limu 


Abbott E996 


12 


Relative of sea lettuce, earty ancestor of shark 'aBinakus was wrapped is pakaiea 
after birth and put into sea. Remnants of this garment is though! to be seen in tbe 
green sides or certain sharks. 

Shorter, broader, has irregular margins, lighter green in enter than U. fasciata. 










pSk&lakala 


Pukni 


3W 


A coarse, non-edible seaweed (ja!ax<mra spp. ). CL kautioa, 'Otala, pafcolekole, 
piliko'a 


pakolekote 


Cf. kauno'a, Bfcala. 
pakolekole.piliko'a 




Galtpraura spp. 


PAKE1-EAWEA 


Doty 


6 


{ex Chamberlain) PAKELEAWAA? (Setchell). 










pakek-a-wa'a 


Pukui 


303 


An edible seaweed. Also huluhuhi waena. 


huhiholu waena 








PAKELEAWAA 


Doty 


6 


(Maui) 








Grafthupiaftticina (Lamoiuoux) C. Agardh 


Pakeleawaa 


Abbott 1947 


206 


(Maui) 








Gro;eloupia 


pakdwnvaa 


Seiche]] 


111 




pakaeleawa 








pakeleewa'a 


Sanborn 


Audio 


Limu planting. They did it "Chop-chop" is taken on small stones. Don'L uproot. 
Doesn't grow in rough water, likes sand. Grows at low tide, long. More 'm» at 
some places because of the spring water. 

tfa woman is pe'a/a'okjheleika nana, haintiin. 'A'olekomoikeiai 










pakeleawaa, iunu 


Chamberlain 


32 












pakepak£ 


Pukui 


JOS 


A seaweed. Also pakfipaku 


pakupakQ 


pakflpakfl 






pakoa 


EwaSiko 


Audio 


Pahc^e k?3, Ulu i luna o ka pohaku a me ke one. Pafupalu, koha kilika. 











Appendix A; Limu Database 
Page 51 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


p3kolekole 


Pukui 


306 


Same as p^kahUtala, a scaweed- 


pekaleitala 






GaSaxcnira spp. 


pakupfltO 


Pukui 


306 


A seaweed. Alsopakepake 


pakepake 


pakfipake 






PALAHALAHA 


Doty 


6 


PAKA3EA? 








Mattastrmta?; Vtvafasciata DeLiLe or 
laurencia 


palahalaha 


Bryan 












Ufta 


palahalaha 


Setchell 


111 










Ubfasp,.h{anostramai?p.i LaurenCtQ perforata 
Mont? 


palahal&ha 


Magmder 


33 










Vhafwdata Dtlile 


palahalaha 


Pukui 


307 


Same as lipabapaha, a seaweed. 


Upuhapaha 






Uhofasclata Delile and Monostroma 
oxyspermwn (Kutzing) Doty 


palahalaha 


Gannon 


Interview 


Pat into soup after you turn the fire off {tecogriized troni picture in Majpmder 
book). 










palahalaha 


Howard 


Interview 


She doesn't rat this hmu but she knows some people eat it with shoyu (Japanese 
style). 










palahalaha^ limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












palahalaha, lima 


AhbotllSM 


17 


Mix with huluhultrwaena. 


pahapaha (yOung lato leaves), 
Bakaica 






Utvafasclata Delile 


palahalaha, limn 


Pntui 


207 


Same as palahalaha 2 


palahalaha 








PALA-ttALOHA 


Doty 


6 










Utvafascjata Delife 


pa-laha-loha, limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


L33 




limu pahfl-paha 






tHvo fascials Delife 


palahalaha, limu 


Reed 


ss 




limn pchapaha 






Utvafosciaia Delile 


pala'ci 


Pukui 


309 


Same as irpfllSwai, fresh-water algae 


EpMawai 


Same as Upaifiwai. 






PALAPAHAKOU 


Doty 


6 










CentrocetvB clovitlaium (C. A^ardh) Mpntapic 



Appendix A; Lirou Database 
Page 52 out of 59 



LiMDlVAME 


SOURCE 


PACE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SEARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


patapphakou 


Setcliell 


HZ 










CetrtrvcerarefavxkituiTt (C. Agarcflt) \fortiagae 


palapohaku 


Henriqnes- 
Peabody 


Ste 












palft'ule 


Pukui 


5L0 


A seaweed. 










paiawai 


Setchell 


112 


Looks lite limu eleele but is not as coarse 


limu lipalawai, limu palawai 






palawai 


Putin 


31 1 


Same as lirau kala wai, pond-scums. 


limukalawai 








PALA-WAI 


Doty 


6 


Ll-PALA-WAI 








Siigeoclonium FaiktartdicuiH K.aaz.\ Splrogyra: 
Kydrodi'ctyan ren'cutatuM (LJLageru. andotfiei 
green fresh water species ;Pfr/itpfcora affinis 
Nordst. 


pala-wai 


MacCaughey 
1917 


138 


Sometimes used bv them (natives) for food. The name is also applied to a numbe 
erf" Other green fresh-water algae, 








ffydrodictyim retiCulaium {L.)Laaem. 


pate'wai. limn 


MficCaugliey 
1917 


139 


IJjrf by them (natives) for fwd 


limuli-pala^wai 






Stigeoclonitm Falklandicvm Kuefc 


pala-wai, lima 


MaeCaughey 
1917 


143 


A number of them are used by the natives for food- 








Spirogyra spp. 


pala-wai, lirnu 


MacCaughey 
1*17 


1« 




limu li-pqla-wai 






Pitbophora affmis Nordat. 


palawai. Lima 


Reed 


SB 


Most all thfl edible green fresh-water algae ate called Jipalawai ot pqlawaie, and 
there are perhaps a half dozen specie* in uk mountain streams thu are known by 
these names. Pounded with limu electa and salt and tied cm cuts and bruises. 


limu lipalawai 






Pilhophora ajjmis? Ncirdsi, Pilhaphom 
polymorphs, Strgeociotuum sp.? 


palawai, Limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












palawai. limu. 


Reed 


87 


Pounded with hmu eleelc and salt and bed on cute and bruises. 








Hydrodiciyan reticulatom (L.) Lageth. 


palawai, lima 


Reed 


88 


Pounded witb Imin eleele and salt and bed. on cuts and bruises. 


limu neht, limu polao 






Spirvgyra sp (probably several) 


palawai, limu 


Abbott 1996 


13 


Freshwater or bracken water algae also eaten by mauta dweller*. 


UpfilSwai 








PALEWAWAE 


Doty 


6 










Laarencia spp. 


paJewaw&e 


Setchell 


112 


Young Lourencia 








Losrvncia sp.? 



Appendix Ar Limu Database 
Pag* 53 out of 59 



LJMUNAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


palewBwae 


Pukui 


312 


Small, ran-shaped brown seaweeds (two species ofPadtna [P. commtrsona, 
light-brown, and .P. vtckersix , larger, darkeT-ferown]). common on the reef, each 
fm more or less split and curled. Not eaten. 






joy weed ifiitentanthera omogna ) from Brazil 


Pcviina cwrvrttrsortit Eory, P. vickcrsiae 


PAPAAKEA 


Doty 


6 










Liagpra vnlida Harvey 


papaokca 


SctchtH 


112 










Li 1 agora vnfiitia Harvey 


pfipa'alcea 


Pukui 


316 


A seaweed fyiagora \aiida ), related to pnakL 








LiagQrQ vafida Harvey 


pa't-o-Hi'iflkn 


Pukui 


&\ 


A kind of red seaweed with, wide, thin thallus. Perhaps same as limu hS'ula. 


limu tuYula? 




Jacqucmonlia safldtvicensUi; a variety cf taro t goad 
gray poi; a variety of sweet potato 




pS'a^-Hi'wfcs 


Pukui 


121 


Same' as tepe-e-Hina, j seaweed. 


lepe-o-Hirjfl 




Jagqu&matin'a sandwsccnsis, a variety oftaro. good 
gray poi; h variety of sweet potato 


Hab/mensB formosa Harvey ex Kutzing 


ptepee 


Setchcll 


112 


Maui name ibr oalaula. L*st5 only one day. 


aalaula 








PEEPEE 


Doty 


h 


(Maui) AALAULA (Hawaii) 








CodfintiMuetlerf Kuetzing 


pe'epe'e 


Pukui 


yn 


Same as Ifpe'epe'e, a seaweed, Maui. 


lFpe'epee 








peepe'e, limu 


Kaina 


Interview 


Grows in cracls, plenty down Maka'alac. Old kind has coral sometimes, so you 
stioaldnt pick that out. 










PEHU 


Doty 


6 


(Chamberlain) 










pchu 


Pukui 


323 


A kind of seaweed. 






A variety of sweet potato 




pehu 


Setchell 


LJ2 












pehu, limu 


Cnarnberlain 


32 












pehu, limn 


Kaina 


Interview 


Looks just like kahu, except it flattens when taken out of (he water. Doesn't have 
a strong smell like kohu and it tastes hat. He knows: of one guy (hat puts il in his 
stew to give it a liotflavor, 










PEPE-AHINA 


Doty 


6 










Haiyrnemaformosa Harvey ex Kutzing 


pepe-ahnia, limu 


Ma&Caugrtey 
;yi7 


154 


Rare. 








Halymeniaformasa Harvey ex Kutang 



Appendix A: Limu Databaso 
Eaga 54 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


PEPE-IAO 


Doty 


h 










A mans JQ glomeruli! Af±. t PadOiapavania (L,) 
Gaill 


pepeiao 


Scichell 


112 




pilipiliko'a 






Fadina pavania (L.) Gzill. 


pepc-iao, lima 


MwCauefccy 
1917 


134 




limu li-pepe-iao 






Amansia glomerate Ag. 


pepeiao, limu 


Reed 


86 




fimu Upepewo 






Amtmsia glameraia Ag. 


pepciao, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












pcpeiao. limu 


Pukui 


207 


Sams as Upcpeiao, 


Upepeiao 








PEPEULU 


JkAy 


b 


(Chflmberlpin) 










pepeulu 


Setehell 


113 












pepeulu, limu 


Chamberlaia 


n 












pTlali 


Pukui 


329 


A seaweed, 










pjJita'a 


SeKhett 


113 










Gataxaura fapidesc&n {So land) Lamx 


pilikHfl 


Pukui 


330 


A. stiff kind of pSkalakala, a seaweed fjtitaxavra tepidescens ) 






Hawkfish, variety of kG 


Ga/omun) ^((foraw (SolandJLamjt. 


PILILOA 


Duly 


6 










Galaxaum Japideicetts (Salami) Lam*. 


PIL1P1LIKOA 


Duly 


6 










Ptidina pavonitj {L.)Guill. 


pilipiliko'a 


Selchell 


L13 




icpei&fl 






Fadtm pavonia (L)Gaill. 


PTPlLANA 


Doty 


7 










Eitieromorpba 


PIPILANI 


Doty 


7 


(Chambflriain) 











App*n4iat A: Limu D&tafcaa* 
Pag* 55 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


pipilani 


Sett bell 


113 












pffptlonj 


Pukni 


332 


Same kinds of gretn seaweeds (specks r}Q%nteromarpha). Maui. Also'ele'cle 


'ele'ele 


Also ele'ele. 




£nferwmwj7fao 


pipilani, limu 


R«d 


36,87 


On Maui it is sometimes died limu pipilani 


limu eleele 






Enttramorphajlexuosa (WuJfen) J Agardh £ 
hopkirkii Ag„ £ intestwatis (Linnaeus) Lint 
fc". (inza (Linnaeus) J. Aganlli E. plxmoso 
(Muller) J. Agaidli £. predfera v&r. tubulosa 
KucU., E- pif/Hfera (Muller) J. Agardh 


pipilani, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












POHA 


Doty 


7 










Mydrociaihms canceiiaius Bory 


poha 


Magrurjer 


47 










Hydrocioihnis clathratus (C. Agardh) Howe 


poha 


Setehell 


113 


Eaten raw by natives. 








ffydraplathrux canceiiatus Bory 


petal 


Pukui 


33+ 


SaiHe AS frihapoM. 


pohapoha, LlpobJtpohJ 




wpe gooseberry -paina(Hawai'i) 


Dictyosplweria vcwmana (Farfflkal)Bor6e»cn 


pohapoha 


Pukui 


*35 


A noD4dible F green seaweed Qieiy/^phaeria cavernoso ), sm&il, round, hallow, 
ihaibursiswiiha pop wiien stepped on. Also l^ohSpoha, poha. 


llpohfipoha, poha 


Also Lipohipohi, pabi. 


"nmnins pap"Passl/lorafoetfda 


Dictyospfiaetia cavernosa (Forsskal) Borgesen 


POLAO 


Don 


7 










Spirogyra spp. 


polao, limu 


Reed 


88 




limu palgwai, hmu nehe 






Spirogyra sp. (probably several) 


PUAKr 


Doty 


7 










Liagprp decussata Mom. 


puaki 


Pukui 


346 


A red seaweed |fi«£<iro dectissora ), somewhat calcified but flexible, branched; 
not edible; related to papa' ate* 








Dagom decusssta Mont. 


Pu-flki, Jimu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


149 


Considered edible, 








Uagpra oecussata Mont. 


puaki, limu 


Reed 


S7 


Grow near the shore. 








Liagora decmsuia Mont 


PtJALU 


Doty 


7 










Pofysipftom'a mollis Hooker et Harvey ex Harvey 
1347 



Appendix A; Limu Database 
Page 56 out of 59 



LJMUNAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


5YNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


pn-ulu, Limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


15+ 


ft is not popular, and it is used by but few natives for food. 


Jimuhawgae 






Pofysiphonia mollis Hooker et Harvey cxHsrvej 
1347 


puaiu. limu 


Reed 


88 


Used by but few Hawaiian? for food; not popular 


timu hawarte 






Pofysiphonia mollis Hooker et Honey ex Harvei 
1B+7 


POHA 


Dqty 


7 










Colppmema Jtinuosa (Roth) Derbes M Sober 


puha 


Sefchdl 


113 










Coipoittenia sinuasa (Roth) Derbes et Solier 


puha 


Magnider 


39 










Colpifmenia sinuaMi (Roth) Derbes et Solier 


puha 


Gannon 


fnlwview 


Seasonal limu that likes waier flow (recognized from piciure in Magrudcr book). 










pubis 


Puk«i 


J46 


A brown seaweed f olpomema sinuosa \ cushion-shaped, hollow, surface 
smooth and un-even, not eaten. Cf. nakeke. 




Cf. nakeke 




Coipamema sinuosa (Roth) Derbes et Solier 


puhuluhnlu 


Pukui 


350 


Same as hulu Tlio (Ceniracerps vlavaium & Ectacarpux app. ). seaweeds. 


hulu 'Tlio 






Ctruroceras davatum & Ectocarpits spp. 


pupukaneilio 


Setchril 


113 












piipukaneilia, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












PUPUKANEUO 


Doty 


7 


(Chamberlain) 










EtIMOU 


Dg(y 


7 


Les olgues marines etfluviatites (Gaudichaud). 










Rimon 


Gaudichaud 


L43 


its algttes marines etjlttvicstles 










RJMOU-KALA 


Doty 


7 










Sargessum ame-jbiiwn et aquifolttiftt 


rimou-kalft 


Gaudictutud 


148 










Sargassum ame/oHtm et aqmjbhtatt 


RJMU 


Doty 


7 


Tahuian, Tusiaotu, and Maori nam* for algae and similar substances. 










turtle Jtrati 


- 


[nterview 


Green limu (Jut prows downHIna Bay. 











Appendix A: Limu Da.ta3w»8S 
Page 57 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE -USD 


SHAKEN NAMES 


LATJX NAMES 


turtle Limu 


Diego 


Interview 


Red with leaves, skinny ofl bottom and branching on lop, smooth- Abo called 
enenuelimu 










uaua toll 


Puku'i 


362 


See limn uaua Ml 




limu uaua Id i. 






UAUALOLI 


Dory 


7 










GymnOEOngntsvermicuSarixamvrieaita LAg,; 


uaualoli 


Setahell 


113 












ua-ua-loli, limu 


MacCsughey 
1917 


ISO 




limuekaluvkaaa, limu ko-cle-eie, 
Limu avwiki-wikl, limu net 






Gyinnogangnisvemicularii, G r anerlcaw. Q. 
tfiiciplinaris J. Ag. 


uaiie loli, limn 


Pukiu 


207 


Same as 'Ekahakaha, a seaweed. 


Ekahakaha,. limn uaua loli 








uaualoli. limu 


Reed 


87 


This limu isBtualh/ called limu uaualoli, but the other names are used in certain 
localities. Grow &r out on the coral reefs or on exposed cocks in the surf. Grow 
quite near the tide line along shore, but on exposed black lava rocks in cough 
water. 

Iron rod is used ta loosen sometimes. Occasionally cooked in imu when there wa 
famine or war and taro and sweet potatoes were scarce. Cooked with boiled meat 
long enough for the gelatin to be softened or dissolved. 

Finely pounded, itis sometimes mixed with salt and small limpets. Gonads of sea 
urchins an sometimes mixed with this limu. 


limn ekahaekaha, Limu kodeele of 
koele, limn awikisviki, limu nei 






Gymnogvngws vermicvlaris americana J. Ag., 
GyMMgongrw dicipUnalis (Bory} J. Af . 


uaualoli, limu 


Chamberlain 


32 












'ula, limu 


Kapuhukhuo 


Interview 


Red, looks Like ITpoa. 










ULAULA 


Doty 


7 


(Cham be/lain) 










ulflwla 


Seiche II 


113 












ulanla. Linro 


Chamberlain 


32 












untie 


Henriqucs- 
Peabody 


863 












upi 


Htmiques' 
Peabody 


863 













Appendix A.: Limu Database 
Page 58 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


PAGE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


WAWAErOLE 


Doty 


7 










Codium Mneikrl Kuetzing (Hawaii) 


w*waeiole 


SetcheJJ 


113 




ctabuila 






Co&umMueileri Kuetzuig 


WHWaeiole 


Magntder 


25 










Corfium edule Silva 


wSwaeipk 


Pukut 


382 


Other analysts call wawae'iote, Codnim edule, and list a'ala-'ula and 'ata'ula as 
variant nomas. Some equate huluhulu-a-' iole and huhiiole with wfiwae' iota 




AlSO huhhnln-fl-'jfilft and 

hphi'iolt 




Coditun edule Silva 


wawae'iole- 


Ewalito 


Audio 


Aifl nO i waho. A ole raakemake i ka mea pac mai. KiM i ka mea, aia no - ma Laila 
' A'ole maika'i ka mea tiumri tea, ka mea makali'i mai no. '0 ka mea makali'i mi 
ka mca helu ekani. Pipili i ia ako'akn'a. 

'Hans 'oe me ka raa'cma'e, 'ai nS oe me ka ma'ema'e, Vole kapulu " Lawe 1 
kaTanikaiahnokoiiioJuiwBwat'iole, maanOkekB'i'i, a'ole palupalu. Palupabj 
i ka wai maoli. Ini 'a'ofe kai, pa'akfli, kBpI a mfto. 


Vaia'ida 








wawae'ujle 


Kaina 


Interview 


Harm mostly has the kind dial lies flat on the mcls, not tht one that branches 
upright from the Band and sways. 










wflwas'iolc 


Gannon 


Interview 


Recognized from picture in Magruder beck. 










Wftwae-iflle, limu 


MacCawehey 
1917 


142 


This species is called limn a*ala-ula and also on Hawai'i, limu. wawae-iole and 
wawae-moa 


limn a-ala-ula, limu wawac-moa 






Codum Mueiieri Kueizing 


wawae-ioli;, limu 


MacCaughey 
1916 


476 


"the mouse-foot limu' 1 








Cudiim MutHeri Kaclzing 


wawaeiole, limu 


Reed 


36 




limu Ballaula. limu wawaimoa 






Co&um Muellers Kuetztng 


wawaeiole, lirmi 


Simpson 














wawae'mle.liriiu 


Keobc-kalole 


Videos 
'AM 


Basal Han 1 ula. 










wSwacNoleJimu 


Abbott 1996 


13, IS 


Cleaned in salt water, then in fresh water and pounded. Add salt, Ho'ohui 'ia me 
fa tipe'epe'e i kekahi manawa. 


Ala' ids; Vda'tfte {AteulJ Jta'aJfl 
(Kaua'i) for prepared limu, 
tiolu'iole (obsolete), wawaemca 
(obsolete) 






CodfttmeMe Silva 


WAWAE-MOA 


Doty 


7 










(Hawaii) Codiiint Mwtiteri Kuetzing 


wawme'Jiioa, limu 


MacCaughey 
1917 


1+2 




^imv wawae-iole limu a-ala-ula 






Cottiwri Mueihri Kuelzing 


WA-WAHf-WA'A 


Doty 


7 










Omoosporafostigatapocifica J.Ag. 



Appendix A: Limu Database 
Page 59 out of 59 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


FACE 


INFORMATION 


SYNONYMS 


SEE ALSO 


SHARED NAMES 


LATIN NAMES 


wawaJuwaa 


SeicheLL 


113 












wswahiwaa 


Henri qis^s- 
Peabody 


Bu3 












wfrvahiwaV 


Pukui 


382 


Same as taupau, a seaweed. 


kuupau 




Borer that boras inio canoe hulls, a teredo. 


Chmospora ptrciftca J. Agnrdh 


wa-wahi-wa'a, limu 


MacCaughey 
]?17 


)4& 


Used by them (natives) for food. 


limu kau-pau 






ChOftOsporaJuStigJaiapaCifica J. Agardh 


wawahiwaa. timu 


Rccd 


&6 




limu kaupan 






ChnQQSporafast\g.atapac\fica J. Ag_ 


wawstuwaa. limu 


Chambcrlak 


32 












wawairaoa, limu 


R£td 


&U 




limu aa]]aula, limu wuw&eiute 






Coditim Mueller/ Kuetziiig 



Appendix B: List of Limu Names 



l.aaki 

aalaula* 

aalii 

ai-a-ka-honu*** 

akaakoa*** 

akala*** 

akiaki* 

akiula 

akoakoa 

akuila 

alaalaula*** 

alani 

alaula 

alolo 

anapanapa*** 

apeepee*** 

aupupu*** 

awaawa 

awikiwiki*** 

ehau 

ekaha 

ekahakaha 

eleau 

eleele* 

eleele-kai 

eleele maoli* 

eloelo 

elula 

hana 

haula 

haulelani*** 

hawane 

hinakea*** 

hinaula*** 

holoawai*** 

holomoku 

hona 

honu 

hoonunu 

huahuakai*** 

huai 

hulu*** 

huluhulu*** 

huluhuluwaena* 

huluhulu wahine 

huluhulu-a-iole* 



hulu ii 

hulu maim*** 

hulu moa 

hulu puaa*** 

hulu ilio*** 

hulu wawae-iole 

huna 

hune 

hunehune*** 

hupekohola 

huwae 

ihau 

ii 

iliau" 

ilio 

iliohaa*** 

kahakala 

kahili** 

ka-kanaka* 

kala* 

kalalauliilii* 

kalalaunuinui* 

kalawai 

kalipoa 

kanaloa*** 

kaunaoa 

kaunoa 

kaupau 

kekuwelu 

kele 

kihe 

kikala 

kiki 

kimau 

kipa-akai 

koele** 

koeleele 

kohu* 

koiale 

koko* 

koloa 

kukae-o-Kamapuaa* 

kukaepueo 

kulapepeiao*** 

kumulimukala 

kumulipoa 



kuwelu 

laau kanaka** 

lehelehe ilio*** 

lepe-o-Hina* 

lepelepe-o-Hina 

lepeahina* 

leponalo 

likolehua 

1 imanamana 

limoa 

lipaakai* 

lipaha 

lipahapaha 

lipahapala 

lipahee* 

lipaheehee 

lipahoe*** 

lipakai 

lipalahalaha* 

lipalao 

lipalawai 
_ . _ *** 
lipalu 

lipaoaoa 

lipee* 

lipeepee* 

lipehe* 

lipehu 

lipepe 

lipepeiao 

lipewale 

lipoa* 

lipohapoha*** 

lipupu 

lipuu 

lipuula 

lipuupuu 

loloa* 

luau 

lupe 

maka 

makaloa 

make* 

make-o-Hana* 

makua-o-ka-limu-kohu 

manaiea 

manauea* 



Limu names that have been associated with actual limu through previous studies. 

Limu names that have been associated with actual limu through this study. 

Limu names that have information but the association with actual limu has not been 

documented. 



Appendix B: List of Limu Names 



maneoneo 

manu 

mauauwea 

mawaewae 

mawaewae kilihune 

menauea 

moa 

moopuna*** 

moopuna-a-ka-lipoa"* 

moopuna-o-limu-kala* 

mualea* 

nahawele"* 

naio 

nakeke*** 

nanea"* 

nanoo 

nanus 

nanui 

ne 

nehe 
. ** 
nei 

nohomahe 

nua 

oaoaka*** 

ohiohio 

ohune 

okala 

okupe 

olipeepee 

oohiea 

oolu* 

opai 

opihi 

ouri 

owakawaka 

paakai 

paakaiea 

pacaya 

pahapaha 

pahapaha-o-Polihale* 

pahapaha wai*** 

pahee* 

paheehee 

paka-ea 

pakaeleawaa* 

pakaiea* 



pakalakala 

pakeleawaa 

pakepake*** 

pakoa*** 

pakolekole*** 

pakupaku*** 

palahalaha* 

palahaloha 

palapahakou 

palapohaku 

palao 

palaula 

palawai 

palewawae 

papaakea*" 

pau-o-Hiiaka 

peepee* 

pehu 

pepe-ahina 

pepeiao 

pepe-o-Hina 

pepeulu 

pilali 

pilikoa"* 

pilipilikoa 

pipilana 

pipilani 

poha 

pohapoha 

polao 

puaki"* 

pualu"* 

puha 

puhuluhulu*** 

pupukaneilio 

rimou-kala 

uaualoli*** 

ula*** 

ulaula 

unele 

upi 

wawaeiole 

wawaemoa 

wawaimoa 

229 .wawahiwaa* 



Limu names that have been associated with actual limu through previous studies. 

Limu names that have been associated with actual limu through this study. 

Limu names that have information but the association with actual limu has not been 

documented. 



Appendix C: Personal Information Sheet 

Personal Information from the people who talked to me about 
limu. 



Full Name: 
Date of Birth: 
Place of Birth: 
Address: 



Phone Number: 

Where you were brought up: 



Occupation/what you do (fish, farm, etc.): 



Who taught you about limu? 



Where this person (these people) is/ are from? 



If you had to put an origin on where your knowledge about 
limu is from, where would that be? (South Kona, Kihei, 
Hana, etc. ) 



Appendix D: List of Voucher Specimens 



LIMU NAME 


SOURCE 


VOUCHER NUMBER 


LATIN NAMES 


limu kohu 


Kaina 


KA002LIMU 


Asparagopsis taxiformis 
(Delile) Trevisan 


nei 


Kaina 


KA028LIMU 


Ahnfeltiopsis 
flabelliformis (Harvey) 
Masuda 


iliau 


Kaina 


KA034LIMU 


Ahnfeltiopsis concinna (J. 
Agardh) Silva et DeCew 


limu manauea 


Anamizu 


KA059LIMU 


Gracilaria coronopifolia 
J. Agardh 


wawae'iole 


Kaina 


KA060LIMU 


Codium arabicum 
Kutzing 


limu kohu 


Howard 


KA061LIMU 


Asparagopsis taxiformis 
(Delile) Trevisan 


limu "ele'ele 


Howard 


KA062LIMU 


Enteromorpha prolifera 
(Muller) J. Agardh 


limu palahalaha 


Howard 


KA063LIMU 


Uhafasciata Delile 


ko'ele'ele, ko'ele 


Howard 


KA064LIMU 


Ahnfeltiopsis 
flabelliformis (Harvey) 
Masuda 


limu huluhuluwaena 


Howard 


KA065LIMU 


Grateloupiafllicina 
(Lamoroux) C. Agardh 


limu kala 


Howard 


KA066LIMU 


Sargassum echinocarpum 
J. Agardh 


limu "akTaki 


Howard 


KA067LIMU 


Ahnfeltiopsis concinna (J. 
Agardh) Silva et DeCew 


lTpe'epe'e 


Howard 


KA068LIMU 


Laurencia sp. 



Appendix E: Supplemental Information - Audio 

Recording References 

Ah Nee, Esther. Ka Leo Hawai^i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.284B. 

Akau, William. 1969. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW207.10.2. 

Ako, Annie Tripp. 1963. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 

Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW135.1.2. 

Almeida, John Kameaaloha. 1970. Mary Kawena Pukui 

Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW62.2.5. 

Aubrey, Bertha Meyer. 1961. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW107.11.2. 

Benanua, Rebecca Kauila. 1963. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW142.2.2. 

Char, Kaulana. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.180B. 

Dudoit, Maurice. 1961. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW108.8.1. 

Duvauchelle, Waldemar. 1961. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW107.14.2. 

Ewaliko, Elizabeth. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai'i 
at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.90A. 

Ewaliko, Elizabeth. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai'i 
at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.233A. 

Ewaliko, Elizabeth Leinaala Bungo. 1959. Mary Kawena Pukui 
Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW50.1.2. 



Appendix E: Supplemental Information - Audio 

Recording References 

Ewaliko, Elizabeth Leinaala Bungo. 1959. Mary Kawena Pukui 
Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW50.1.3. 

Ewaliko, Elizabeth Leinaala Bungo. 1959 Mary Kawena Pukui 
Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW50.2.3. 

Gonsalves, Margrett. Ka Leo Hawai^i. University of Hawai^i 
at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.367. 

Haanio, Mary Ahio. 1960. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW106.2.2. 

Haia, Elizabeth. 1963. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW137.6.1. 

Harbottle, Katherine Makena. Ka Leo Hawai^i. University of 
Hawai^i at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.365. 

Hayes, Flora Kaai. 1963. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW143.1.1. 

Johnson, Rachel Kinney. 1964. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW157.1.2. 

Kaalakea, Kawika. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai^i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.178A. 

Kaalekahi, Henry. Ka Leo Hawai^i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.410. 

Kaiawe, George. 1963. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW147.4.2. 

Kaleleiki, Lokalia. Ka Leo Hawaii. University of Hawai'i 
at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.64B. 



Appendix E: Supplemental Information - Audio 

Recording References 

Kamaka, Robert Palakiko Sr. 1961. Mary Kawena Pukui 

Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW120.6.1. 

Kamalani, Jonah. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai^i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.53B. 

Kaui, Papa. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai^i at Manoa: 
Moore Hall. Reel HV24.202AB. 

Kaui, Papa. Ka Leo Hawai^i. University of Hawai^i at Manoa: 
Moore Hall. Reel HV24.208AB. 

Kauka, Kaipo. 1965. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW168.1.3. 

Kaupu, Edward K. Sr. 1961. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW108.11.2. 

Kawelo, Hilda Hoohila Manuia. 1963. Mary Kawena Pukui 
Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW152.1.1. 

Keawe, David. Ka Leo Hawai^i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.412. 

Keohokalole, Emma. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.303. 

Kenui, Carrie Kaaelani. 1968. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW20 0.2.1. 

Kondo, Yoshio. 1969. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW221.3.1. 

Lupenui, Muriel. Ka Leo Hawai^i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.101A. 



Appendix E: Supplemental Information - Audio 

Recording References 

Lupenui, Muriel K. 1966. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW197.2. 

Mahuiki, Rachael. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.14. 

Makaai, Joe. Ka Leo Hawai'i. .University of Hawai^i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.323. 

Makuakane, Elizabeth Keaweaheulu Kahoopii. 1965. Mary 

Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 
Library. HAW168.10. 

Marciel, Josephine Kealoha. 1960. Mary Kawena Pukui 

Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW85.7.1. 

Medeiros, Josephine Kauakeaohana Roback. 1960. Mary Kawena 
Pukui Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW87.4.1. 

Mikasobe, Lucy. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa; Moore Hall. Reel HV24.104B. 

Mikasobe, Lucy. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai^i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.200B. 

Namauu, Rose, Analu, and Alice Namakelua. Ka Leo Hawai^i. 
University of Hawai'i at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel 
HV24.97AB. 

Naoo, Sarah Wahinekaapuni. 1961. Mary Kawena Pukui 

Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW107.1.1. 

Pu, Joseph. 1960. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAWS 7. 1.1. 



Appendix E: Supplemental Information - Audio 

Recording References 

Sanborn, Winifred Kalei Saffery. 1960. Mary Kawena Pukui 
Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW84.6.1. 

Tanaka, Maruki. 1963. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW137.2.1. 

Tanaka, Maruki. 1963. Mary Kawena Pukui Interview. Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. HAW137.2.2. 

Waialeale, Edith Kaleimomi. 1963. Mary Kawena Pukui 

Interview. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Library. 
HAW147.7.1. 

Westmoreland, Esther. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai'i 
at Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.345. 

Whitford, Minnie. Ka Leo Hawai'i. University of Hawai'i at 
Manoa: Moore Hall. Reel HV24.354.